Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition that causes inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The disorder was discovered in the 18th century among successful people as a lifelong struggle condition (Barkley, 2018). Before the adoption of the name hyperkinetic reaction of childhood, Melchior A. Weikard and Sir Alexander Crichton described it as ‘attention deficit.’ The condition was common among children aged seven years and below, but was later detected in adults, which led to the change of its name to adult ADHD (Barkley, 2018). As a result, psychiatrists were able to discover the causative agents of the disorder and its effects on the population.
Regardless of the historical background, research efforts continuously establish the causes of the condition. The development of ADHD involves genetics, environment, and problems during development (Barkley, 2018). Family medical history and mutations may lead to the progression of the condition, especially in underage populations. Parents with ADHD have a higher percentage of transmitting the condition to their offspring (Barkley, 2018). The condition, also called hyperkinetic impulse disorder, may also emerge due to environmental conditions and changes. For instance, exposure to heavy metals increases the chances of developing ADHD and progressing with the condition to maturity (Barkley, 2018). As such, the affected children develop cognitive challenges that require special considerations, such as offering intensive care needs in learning institutions.
People with ADHD require the government to formulate policies in line with educational considerations for them. The approach involves addressing the genetic and environmental issues that facilitate the spread of the condition (Barkley, 2018). Educators should incorporate routines and rules for learners with the condition to facilitate a balance between their studies and managing the condition. The routines should outline educational considerations, such as general behavior, environment contemplations, rule, and structural organization (Barkley, 2018). They should also involve behavioral management, direct instructions, and natural settings. These factors play a crucial role in the transition of learners with ADHD from childhood to adulthood.
Upon attaining adulthood, children with ADHD should undergo a transition period to become adults with ADHD. The disorder is a lifetime condition that requires some transition arrangements. First, patients should be assessed after leaving school to acknowledge the need for a transition if the condition’s symptoms persist (Barkley, 2018). Second, a formal meeting between the patients and clinical care providers should be carried out to assess the status of the patients (Barkley, 2018). Lastly, a comprehensive patient assessment should be included in the specific area because of the age of the learners, which differs among locations. Thus, proper management of learners with ADHD reduces the risks associated with the condition.
Question 2: Children and youths with EBD
School teachers and well-behaved peers should accommodate children and youths with emotional and behavioral disorder (EBD) in curriculum developments to improve their academic relations. Learners with EBD cannot interact with others due to behavioral challenges characterized by aggression and hostility (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Teachers’ behavior and practices affect the relationship of the learners. On that note, the educators should improve and balance behavior with social and academic learning to have individuals who may interact with others for mutual benefits (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). The teachers should withdrawal their practices for an observable change in the bossy, unpredictable, and quarrelsome behavior among students with EBD.
Question 3: Autism and schizophrenia
Kanner’s and Asperger’s studies offer a contextualized historical background of the characteristics children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have, such as poor relations, aloneness, resistance, echolalia, fear, and language challenges among others (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Autistic children have extreme loneliness that isolates them from others in the school, which is associated with the inability to interact and relate with others. The lonesomeness affects language and communication abilities of the children due to fear, resistance, and the spontaneous behaviors (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). As such, the children have a perpetual rocking and spinning character that distinguishes them from others in the school.
Kanner’s and Asperger’s description interrelates ASDs with schizophrenia’s differential characters. As such, individuals with autism have little social connection while those with schizophrenia withdraw from the global presence (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). The character plays a role in distinguishing autistic and schizophrenic children. Asperger also found that autistic children have unique language patterns and echolalia that differ from schizophrenia completely (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Children with autism have little function compared to those with schizophrenia. To sum up, Kanner and Asperger played a key role in differentiating schizophrenia from autism to facilitate easier detection of patients with the conditions.
Question 4: Exceptional student professional educators (Part I)
The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) defines communication disorders as the comprehension and expression challenges associated with hearing and visual impairments. The association makes it hard to have a definitive prevalence, although speech-language pathologists believe that 8-9% of preschoolers, 5% of elementary school students, and 1% of school-age children live with the disorder (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Based on the hearing element of communication, the ear is divided into the outer (least important), middle, and inner ear (most important) (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Destruction of the layers affects the ear and may lead to an assessment of hearing impairment through pure-tone audiometry, screening test, and speech audiometry. The ear is an important organ for comprehension and expression during communication.
The eye offers visual expressions during information sharing to facilitate interaction. Visual impairments are common among adults and children. The Federal government indicates that the prevalence of visually impaired school children is approximately 0.04% (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Considerations and assessment of visually impaired children involve the use of Snellen chart to measure visual acuity and Braille in educational facilities (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Visual impairments are held as adult disabilities since they are less common among children.
Giftedness can be defined as an intellectual superiority in education, music, art, creativity, precocious, and insights. There are three types of giftedness in cognitive superiority, which include practical, synthetic, and analytical (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Assessing and measuring giftedness is a complicated matter because of its alignment with the future contribution of the children to the society. The identification methods for giftedness are self-nomination, IQ based tests, teacher nominations, student evaluations, peer nominations, standardized achievement test scores, and parent nominations (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). The neglected students with special talents and gifts include underachievers, cultural and ethnic minorities, the disabled, and individuals from low socioeconomic areas (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). As such, there is a need to determine and support children with special gifts and talents.
Question 5: Exceptional student professional educators (Part II)
Physical disabilities are impairments that limit function, dexterity, and mobility of individuals and lead to special care, facilities, and materials. These disabilities, whether acute, chronic, or episodic are grouped as musculoskeletal disorders, neuromotor impairments, and orthopedic disorders (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). On one hand, the most common neuromotor impairments include spinal cord injuries, epilepsy, spina bifida, and cerebral palsy. On the other hand, the major orthopedic and musculoskeletal disorders include juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and muscular dystrophy (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). These disabilities affect learners since they require special care, training, and facilities to achieve excellence.
Other conditions affect the physical ability and health status of students, for instance, diseases, physiological impairments, injuries, and congenital malformations such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, AIDS, cystic fibrosis, and asthma (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Physically disabled children have varied psychological and behavioral characteristics defined in their academic achievements and personality in public and family life. They use prosthetics (replacements of amputated body parts), orthoses (devices for enhancing functionality), and adaptive devices (facilities for assistance at home such as hand washers) to carry on with their activities (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). These devices assist the physically challenged to lead better lives.
Physically disabled children have educational considerations to facilitate their intellectual wellbeing. Some of these include individualized planning, educational placement, as well as educational goals and curricula (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). Early identification and intervention strategies for physically disabled students include communication skills, positioning, and handling strategies. Educators should focus on enhancing gross motor responses and the effects of abnormal reflexes on developmental disabilities (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2019). As the students grow, transitional issues such as sociosexuality and careers should be addressed. The disabled require exceptional and special educational consideration to facilitate their intellectual wellbeing.
Barkley, R. A. (2018). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment (4th ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Hallahan, D., Kauffman, J., & Pullen, P. (2019). Exceptional Learners: an introduction to special education. New York, NY: Pearson.
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