Border and Coastal Security

Border and Coastal Security

Border and Coastal Security


            This paper explores four questions on the border and coastal security professionals. The first part describes the challenges facing the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency as they secure the borders. Under this title, the author briefly examines the meaning of ‘functional equivalent to a border’ and gives examples. Also, the writer elucidates the purpose of the Fourth Amendment as it pertains to border searches and illustrates why seizure statistics justify the mission of border security. In the second section, the author discusses the concept of ‘open markets and closed borders’ in explaining the challenges of facilitating legal border crossings while maintaining a secure border. The third part captures the economic impact of terrorism on U.S. global markets since 9/11. Lastly, the author describes the effects of GATT and NAFTA on cross-border trade in America.

Essay Question #1: Challenges Facing US Custom and Border Protection Agents

            The United States Customs and Borders Protection Agency experience numerous challenges emanating from its broad mandate. The multiagency department is commissioned to oversee the Coast Guard, Domestic Nuclear detection office, Customs, and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, and Immigration and Customs Enforcement among other agencies coordinated by the U.S Department of Homeland Security. In executing its mandate to safeguard the U.S. borders against terrorist-associated threats, transnational crime, non-legitimate asylum-seekers, illegal immigration, and human and goods trafficking, the organization faces a set of challenges (Wermuth & Riley, 2016). They include constant attempts to intercept criminals attempting to smuggle contraband merchandise, ranging from drugs to ammunitions to slaves to weapons. The agency also experiences problems of enforcing search and seizure laws on border crossers. The strategic challenges to the U.S. border security are mammoth and hold the potential to affect a significant segment of its economy.

            Borders are vital regions along the geographic boundaries of legal jurisdictions or political entities that define territorial boundaries, which exist on land, air, and sea. The alternative checkpoints to actual borders were decided in Almeida-Sanchez v United States (1973).  Pursuant to this case, the Supreme Court established that international airports and road stations found near the border are functional equivalents of a border. Examples include the 16 CPB clearance facilities in Canada located at Montreal, Vancouver, Winnipeg, and Victoria airports. In addition, Shannon and Dublin Airports serve as preclearance ports in Europe and the Aruba preclearance amenity is situated in Miami, Florida. Borders and their functional equivalents separate different jurisdictions and let each state control its internal affairs.

            The constitutionality of warrantless searches and seizures at the border is captured under the Fourth Amendment of the Bill of Rights. The law explains the kinds of searches and seizures that are permissible and those that are unallowable to government agents. According to the legislation, police are generally required to get a warrant from a judge before searching, seizing, or conducting arrests of suspected criminals (Wermuth & Riley, 2016). However, law enforcement agents working on behalf of U.S. Customs and Border Protection are exempted from the mandatory warrant acquisition provision. Instead, the exception empowers them to search travelers’ vehicles, luggage, and personal items at border checkpoints at all times without suspicion of criminal wrongdoing (Wermuth & Riley, 2016).  The fourth Amendment exception endorses mandatory border searches without probable cause to maintain national security.

            Seizure statistics from the last two years corroborate government opinion that there is a crisis at the border. The Fourth Amendment does not guarantee absolute protection from all kinds of searches and seizures except those considered unreasonable under the law.  Therefore, exceptions placed on legitimate government interests are intended to promote public safety. Seizure data illustrate an influx of illegal immigrants and drugs in the U.S., which also raises the specter of terrorist invasion through the porous Southern border. According to 2018 DEA drug threat assessment report, the period between 2017 and the fall of 2018 has witnessed dramatic spike seizures of illegal drugs, including methamphetamine, cocaine, heroin, and fentanyl. In 2019, U.S. incumbent President Donald Trump cited that 17,000 felons were apprehended at the border in the fiscal year 2018 (Hiemstra, 2019). On authorized immigration, over 1.6 million people were flagged trying to cross the border without permission since Oct. 1, 2017. These statistics show a tangible matrix to justify the mission of border security and the need to expand budgets to increase resources allotted to border security.

Essay Question #2: Challenges facilitating Legal Border Crossings

The open and hardened border paradoxes characterize the challenges facilitating legal border crossings while maintaining secure borders.  In the hardened border paradox, the widespread accord across the political spectrum is to develop physical enhancements in the form of walls, fence lines, towers, and patrols, to harden the border and stave the influx of undocumented migrants.  Immigration hardliners argue that border security is a decisive factor in the safety of Americans, yet it is still difficult to keep the U.S. frontiers safe from illegal intrusion (Laine, 2012). Furthermore, migrants have devised new ways to outwit the tireless and vigilant Border Patrol agent, evade routine warrantless border inspection, and get into the country through alternative cross-points other than the actual border. Therefore, hardening the boundaries will stem all the vices that occur within the border. However, hardening the policies produces the opposite effect of more crime, misery, and death in stark contrast to the open border paradox.

The open border paradox exerts a weakened border effect. In this situation, the rules are flexed such that borders are made freer for entry by foreign merchants, immigrants, and expatriates.  The dynamics of globalization make open borders imperative to remove constraints for interaction (Laine, 2012). The challenge is that such measures enable reprehensible entities to go through the borders and execute their will unfettered. Nonetheless, both paradoxes can be overcome by accepting to compromise reasonable physical barriers. Consequently, the system should facilitate safe migration though open policies that permit legal trade and movement across the border to boost profitability.

The open and hardened border paradoxes are pertinent to the formulation of immigration policy and the establishment of bilateral relationships. On the one hand, America’s economic prosperity is heavily dependent on an open continental system characterized by the free movement of people and merchandise. On the other hand, the country is exposed to catastrophic terrorist onslaughts that preoccupy government discourses. However, a viable poise needs to be established between individual differences and interests to balance access and control.  Imposing hardliner policies such as erecting the Mexico-U.S. border is exaggerated, considering the overwhelming implications of such missteps on diplomatic ties (Laine, 2012). The U.S. policymakers presume that there exists an automatic tradeoff between free movement and rigorous border controls. Nevertheless, this conception is mislaid since the degree of border openness does not correlate with crime. Border control is an essential element of the bilateral relationship between the U.S. and its trade partners to encourage foreign direct investment.

Essay Question #3: Economic Impact of Terrorism on U.S. Global Markets

The U.S borders remained unrestrained until 2001 when the threat of terrorism by non-state actors intensified. The economic impact of terrorism on U.S. and global markets since 9/11 has been significant on both short-term and long-term scales. Before the 9/11, approximately $100 billion was set aside for rescue fund. However, that amount increased to $3.3 trillion in an attempt to preclude a similar event in the future (Yule, 2008). Although the expenditures incurred to prevent potential loss of lives are justified, it has run the economy down by a deficit nearing 20 trillion dollars. The breakdown includes damages and funding of future war costs, among others. Overall, counter-terrorism is one of the major causes of government spending.

In global markets, the immediate effect of the 9/11 attack was experienced following the shockwaves on global stock markets. It resulted in a sharp plunge in the price of stocks and insurance losses estimated at $40 billion (Yule, 2008). Today, countries are facing increased threats of Jihadist attacks following increased mitigation measures taken by western civilizations to counter terrorism. Also, potential catastrophic attacks can ensue against western allies in an attempt by autocratic Islamic regimes to resist democratization. The 9/11 attack is the biggest insured events in the history of the global stock market.

Essay Question #4: Impact of GATT and NAFTA on Cross Border Trade

Trade agreements are typified by interdependencies and spillover effects that must be jointly addressed to circumvent negative externalities at the borders. In most cases, alliances are built from intrastate tensions and cleavages, which attract regional actors to seek friendships from their neighbors. As a result, individual states realize the significance of cooperation to advance regional development. The common history, values, industrial atmosphere, and universal awareness of a common problem motivated North American nations to establish trade agreements that would facilitate regional development. Generally, the impact of NAFTA and GATT free trade agreements on North America has been a double-edged sword.

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) imperative was an open border policy that came into effect in January 1994 and gathered momentum before the 9/11 bombing. It was intended to establish an essential balance between supranational regimes (Cooper, 2014). The grand idea was to create a gigantic marketplace where members could engage in free transportation of goods and services. NAFTA influenced growth of Maquiladora plants and the U.S. Mexico trade. Maquiladora employment increased by 86 percent following NAFTA implementation; furthermore, the U.S. exports to and imports from Mexico boomed by 93 percent and 190 percent respectively since the launch of NAFTA (Cooper, 2014). The enactment of NAFTA produced notable benefits for Mexico and the U.S., including phenomenal growth in international trade.

 In addition, export production in Mexico increased from 1700 plans in 1990 to 3 800 in 2001. Besides, rapid urbanization occurred in U.S-Mexico border during the last part of the 20th century. Additionally, population growth occurred dramatically in border cities from 11 9422 to 3.2 million in less than two decades (Cooper, 2014). However, the fateful incident of September 11, 2001, accentuated the imperativeness of controlling the Southwest border. Since the deadly bombing, efforts to curb illegal immigration have intensified to combat terrorist threat against the U.S. Currently; cross-border facilitation has been overshadowed by security issues, which remains America’s longstanding agenda.  Also, there exist complex issues in North American integration. As a result, NAFTA’s course has not fully materialized.

On the other hand, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a treaty proposed by the U.S. to advance specific relations due to territorial nearness between North American nations. The primary intention was to eliminate barriers to trade, such as quotas and tariffs. The barriers were considered harmful because they contributed 65 percent of recession during the Great Depression (Cooper, 2014). GATT had several positive impacts, such as the reinstatement of economic stability after the Great Depression and World War II. Also, GATT set a foundation for the formulation of a more robust WTO agreement. It fostered peace across the world by deterring war through trade alliances founded on peace. It proved that free trade works and inspired other contracts among them the European Union, which prevented war between member states (Maenin, 2010). As a result, the world became a peaceful place for trade and prosperity.

However, GATT has many shortcomings that motivated its amendment and subsequent replacement by the WTO agreement. Foremost, Low tariffs killed local industries and led to unemployment. Secondly, the U.S. exports accrued lower market value in the international bazaar due to reduced tariffs on agriculture, textile, and clothing industries by the Nixon administration in 1973. Thirdly, GATT supported foreign direct investment at the expense of international expansion of locally established enterprises (Cooper, 2014). Consequently, the agreement destabilized traditional economies that depended on agriculture. The numerous disincentives imposed by GATT influenced its ultimate removal.

Both NAFTA and GATT are international free trade agreements intended to enhance international trade between North American nations. They both fostered economic growth in the U.S. and its allies by eliminating trade and investment barriers. In addition, the agreements promoted job creation and increased exports and imports to support trade expansion. The enactment of both treaties saw an increased variety of better quality services and goods sold at lower prices. The treaties intensified competition in local and foreign markets, which increased value, choice, and employment (Cooper, 2014). However, they created loopholes in the security system, which were exploited by terrorist to perpetuate bombings. As a result, the U.S. became more vigilant about potential catastrophic breach facilitated by free movement across the border. The government is utilizing the loopholes used by nefarious terrorists to minimize security deficiencies by inspecting cargo at the borders. NAFTA and GATT have changed the security dynamics of the U.S. since the 9/11 bombing. 

Contrastingly, NAFTA was an agreement between three countries while GATT brought together 23 countries. Therefore, NAFTA fostered free movement in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico while GATT enabled transcontinental movement. Besides, NAFTA came into effect in January 1948 and ended in January 1995 after the introduction of the more comprehensive World Trade Organization while NAFTA was enacted in 1994, one year prior to the culmination of GATT whose main agenda was to promote non-discriminatory trade by facilitating protection through tariffs and creating a stable basis for business (Cooper, 2014). In contrast, NAFTA was enacted to expand U.S. exports and ensure consumers get quality products at the best prices. NAFTA and GATT differed in the scope of their impacts in that NAFTA motivated the U.S. to curb regional terrorism while GATT inspired the U.S. to cushion itself against international criminal activities.


By answering the vexing questions posed on the border and coastal security professionals, the author established that the United States Customs and Borders Protection Agency experiences numerous challenges emanating from its broad mandate of thwarting terrorist-associated threats, transnational crime, non-legitimate asylum-seekers, illegal immigration, and human and goods trafficking. Noteworthy, the execution of NAFTA and GATT created loopholes for the development of these challenges before 2001. However, they also motivated the imposition of hardliner policies such as erecting the Mexico-U.S. border to curb cross-border crimes. The Fourth Amendment exclusion and seizure statistics justify the mission of border security and the need to expand budgets to intensify border security.


Cooper, W. H. (2014). Free trade agreements: Impact on US trade and implications for US trade

policy. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2252&context=key_workplace

Hiemstra, N. (2019). Pushing the US-Mexico border south: United States’ immigration policing

throughout the Americas. International Journal of Migration and Border Studies, 5(1-2), 44-63.

Laine, J. (2012). Border paradox: Striking a balance between access and control in asymmetrical

border settings. Eurasia Border Review, 3(1), 51-79.

Marenin, O. (2010). Challenges for integrated border management in the European Union.

            Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).

Wermuth, M. A.  & Riley. J. (2016). The Strategic Challenge of Border Security. JCMS: The

Rand Corporaion.

Yule, K. (2008). CRS Report for Congress.  Congressional Research Service.

Rretrived from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33659.pdf


Tired of Guidelines or Lack Time to Work on Your Paper, Get Original Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Thecustomwriting.com research paper writing service has saved thousands of students from stressful college life. Writing a custom research paper may be challenging, considering it has to be plagiarism-free. And it is better not to do your project than to hand in plagiarized work or hurriedly complete it if you do not have time.

Academic integrity is so vital that you may get a suspension or an expulsion because of a copy-pasted work. Writing a custom research paper requires research and writing skills to produce original content. Here are essential things to know about getting the best and legit assignments help websites.

Perfection is vital

Every website will promise you that they produce high-quality work. However, you put your money for your end-of-semester paper only to get a pass. You must learn how to identify the best writing service before committing.

Thecustomwriting.com produces quality content at all times. Rather than a quality promise, quality assurance is what you should consider before hiring a research writer. Best writing services are reliable. You don't want to partner with a cheap research paper writing service that will deliver poorly written essays hours after the due date.

Quality writers are part of the best writing service. A company that has untrained writers will fail you. Before committing, ensure that the people who will write your paper are academicians and professionals. It would help if you had a writer who will be prompt to respond to your questions and follow instructions. Writers who do not fear to ask for clarification where they don't understand are the best for you.

Beware of Scammers Posing to Provide Custom Research Paper Writing Service

It may take time and effort to find a legit custom research paper writing service. Most of the websites claiming to offer writing service trades your paper with another student. For example, if you order your paper today to submit it next week, you may find that another student has already handed over the same document.

Your money is gone, you have no paper to submit, and the deadline is in two hours. You can only sit and cook up some stories for your lecturer. Otherwise, wait for a penalty or suspension.

Others will give you half-baked papers in the name of cheap essays. Apart from reselling your paper, some companies will offer you copy-pasted work. If you don't have tools such as Turnitin or Copyscape to check plagiarism, you may find yourself in the dean's office explaining why you copied your work from the internet word-to-word.

We offer one of the best research paper writing services in the USA and the U.K.

You won’t regret choosing Thecustomwriting.com to handle your research. Your project is an essential part of your academic work. It determines whether you will move on to the next semester or if your name will appear on the graduation list. Do not gamble your education by hiring any cheap essay writing website you find on the internet. Look for a custom research paper writing service reviews before commit.

Avoid scandals by hiring Thecustomwriting.com. Count yourself lucky if you are reading this article. You are in the right direction in finding the writing service for your paper. Though many websites could have frustrated you, Thecustomwriting.com is committed to providing you with reliable service for your paper.

Thecustomwriting.com offers quality services at affordable prices, and they deliver your work on time. They have native English writers that write your paper using the correct language.

Plagiarism Free Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Our writers understand the seriousness of writing plagiarized papers. Every institution has regulations that govern how a research project is conducted. Universities and colleges take plagiarism as gross misconduct. The best writing services are those that will deliver plagiarism-free papers.

Plagiarism involves, among others, copying a published work and delivering it to your lecturer as your own without acknowledging the sources.

Another way your work can be plagiarized is the failure to include the source of your content in a research paper. If you are using someone's thought, you need to include a reference and in-text citations to show that you are using another scholars' worker.

It's a gross mistake to write a five-page paper without a single source unless the paper's nature does not require you to rely on any sources. Here are some tips our writers use to avoid accidental plagiarism:

  • Cite direct quotes, statistics, and paraphrased content.
  • Ensure that all in-text citations are included in the biography and vice versa.
  • Directly quoting not more than 2% of the paper, if quoting is necessary (some papers are exempted from this rule, especially literature).
  • Stick to high authority, scholarly sources. Our writers will hardly paraphrase content from third party blogs and other questionable sites.
  • Consider Buying A Custom Research Paper from Thecustomwriting.Com

    Consider hiring an expert essay writer if you are not sure about your capabilities. Referencing and citations can be challenging, especially if you try to do it for the first time. It's even harder when your lecturer asks you to use a hard referencing style. For example, Harvard requires you to include page numbers, dates, and the author's name in the text. If you have several papers with a strict deadline, you should consider hiring a custom research paper writing service to help you work on your essays.

    However, ensure the website you want to hire offers legit writing service. A good website should at least charge for its services. You will find many websites willing to provide you with free services. No one is that idle to sit and write a paper for free. Sites that provide free or cheap services hooks you when you least expect.

    Also, consider the price of writing a paper. Though cheap essays are of low quality, other sites may have inflated prices for their rate, making you needlessly break your bank.

    Thecustomwriting.com understands the need for a fair and reasonable price for most students. We know that most students need service, but they do not have enough resources. We, therefore, offer quality service that you can afford.

    Benefits of using custom research paper writing service

    If this is your first time considering using a custom writing service, the first thing is to know why taking such an action is the best. Choosing Thecustomwriting.com ensures professional writers handle your paper. Letting a qualified person handle your project can boost your grade. You cannot afford to fail in the upcoming end-of-semester project. In any case, your progress to the next level will be determined by how well you perform in your essay.

    Thecustomwriting.com ensures the timely delivery of your work. The good thing about legit essay writers is that they can write your essay within the shortest time possible, with one page taking up to one hour at most. It doesn't matter what time you want your work done: Thecustomwriting.com is always ready for a task.

    We will give you a paper written explicitly for you. We will ensure that your paper is not delivered to someone else.

    Come to think of this; if five of your classmates decide to order an essay for the same class, five writers will be assigned to work on different papers instead of paraphrasing one paper and sending it to five of you.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Do subject specialist writers handle my research paper?

    It's our responsibility to ensure that someone from your field handles your paper. Our company has enough writers from every discipline. We provide only a research writer qualified in your subject to handle your paper. After placing an order, the first step is to screen the question and requirement and match it with the best writer. The less qualified writer has a college diploma, and they only handle high school papers. All other writers are bachelor, masters, and PhD degree holders.

    Are your researchers qualified enough to know the core of the research?

    We commit to quality content. We understand that failure to deliver quality service will result in the loss of clients. Therefore, we only hire qualified writers who have an in-depth understanding of your paper. Whether you want quantitative research done using Chi-square or qualitative research, Thecustomwriting.com’s writers will comfortably handle any discipline or type of paper. Besides, we offer research paper service from college to PhD. Therefore, we cannot afford to have unqualified writers. Our researchers take every instruction keenly when writing your essay.

    Should I worry about order placement?

    There is nothing to worry about placing your order. Our platform has a simple, user-friendly interface that enables you to navigate to different functionalities with ease. We offer quality custom research paper writing services; thus, you don't have to worry about getting value for your money. Besides, you can track your order's progress. Our system progressively send you email notifications regarding every stage of your orders' progress; thus, you don't even have to log in to track down your order. You will also see the progress on the dashboard when you log in. Moreover, our support team will contact you when the writer needs any clarification.

    Can I have direct communication with the writer after the order placement?

    Our system is designed in such a way that it allows you to communicate with your writer directly. We understand the need to clarify things yourself to the writer. Furthermore, our support team is available 24 hours to ensure that urgent matters are communicated swiftly with the writer.

    Will I get any discount on recommendation?

    The answer is yes. We value your efforts and trust to recommend us to your friends. We will offer you a discount on your next order if a client mentions your email when placing an order.

    What guarantees should customers look for?

    We have a written list of what we guarantee our clients in our terms. We guarantee the quality, confidentiality, free revision, original content, and timely delivery. We also guarantee money-back if, in the unlikely event, you are not happy with the quality of the paper.

    What makes a reliable writing company?

    It's easy to know a reputable company. First, they are transparent about their services. They offer multiple methods of communication and have qualified writers. Most importantly, they deliver your work on time, deliver original content, and honour what they have guaranteed.

    Why should customers not opt for cheap essay writing services?

    Cheap essay services will only waste your time. They have foreign writers who will produce plagiarized content full of grammar errors. You will waste your precious time waiting for a paper that you can't give your lecturer.

    Is buying essays online safe?

    It's safe to buy your essay if you take the right precaution. Before putting your money on a strange site, explore the website to see whether you will get customer reviews. They will help you make the right decision.

    How do I hire someone to write an essay for me?

    These are common questions with most clients. It's effortless to get a professional writer. The first step is to identify a custom research paper writing service that is legit and sign up. After that, they will guide you on how to place your order and get a writer. Some companies will allow you to choose a writer for yourself or choose a writer for you.

    What types of writing services can I order online?

    Our website offers a variety of legit essay services. We provide any academic assistance, including research projects, assignments, and admission letters. Visit our website to see what each service entails.

    What benefits and additional features do Thecustomwriting.com services offer?

    We offer several free services to our customers. We offer free revision, a discount on your first order, and free pages such as references and cover pages. Also, we have a quality control department that ensures that all papers are of high quality before delivering them to you.

    Do websites maintain your privacy? Are orders secured?

    Your privacy is our top priority. You will be recognized by your I.D. assigned to you after signup instead of your name. The only person who can access your account is you or anyone else you give your password. Your payment is through a third party. Therefore, your personal information will never reach our site without your consent.

    What are the pros of ordering from custom writing services?

    You get quality papers. We have writers with decades of experience delivering quality papers worth the client's money and much more. We understand your power to influence our progress. Your paper will be delivered on time and written by professional writers.

    Hire a professional writer

    Now that you know what to look for when considering the custom research paper writing services, it's time to try us. Sign up and get a discount on your first order. You don't have to worry about quality, timely delivery, and price. We know they are essential to you.

    Calculate your order
    Pages (275 words)
    Standard price: $0.00
    Client Reviews
    Our Guarantees
    100% Confidentiality
    Information about customers is confidential and never disclosed to third parties.
    Original Writing
    We complete all papers from scratch. You can get a plagiarism report.
    Timely Delivery
    No missed deadlines – 97% of assignments are completed in time.
    Money Back
    If you're confident that a writer didn't follow your order details, ask for a refund.

    Calculate the price of your order

    You will get a personal manager and a discount.
    We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
    Total price:
    Power up Your Academic Success with the
    Team of Professionals. We’ve Got Your Back.
    Power up Your Study Success with Experts We’ve Got Your Back.