fbpx

Cybercrime

Cybercrime

Research Paper: Cybercrime

Introduction

Background

             The emergence of information technologies has revolutionized the ways in which human activities are undertaken in the business, social, and education sectors. However, as humans continue to depend on these technologies in almost all aspects of their lives, new challenges emerge- cybercrime. As computers get more sophisticated, the problem of cybercrime tends to evolve. The first recorded accounts of illegal use of computer systems surfaced in the 1960s, during which computers used to be large mainframe systems (De Leeuw & Bergstra, 2008). Unlike the modern information security breaches, these early crimes tended to entail computer sabotage, computer manipulations or the utilization of electronic devices to undertake illegal activities. Since access to mainframe computers was physically restricted and limited, and since the systems were never networked with others, these early forms of crimes used to be undertaken by insiders. However, cybercrime emerged with the surfacing of hacker culture from the 1960s to 1980s. In the 21st Century, governments and private citizens are increasingly raising concerns over the complexity of cybercrime, a phenomenon that poses security and economic danger to society. 

            Like other forms of crime, cybercrime is comprised of involvement in misconducts that have been outlawed by the society. Cybercrime differs from traditional forms of crime mainly in the manner in which it is committed (De Leeuw & Bergstra, 2008). While real-world criminals utilize guns to commit crimes, cybercriminals use computer technologies to engage in socially and legally outlawed activities. Therefore, cybercrime represents the shifting of real-world crime into the cyberspace (De Leeuw & Bergstra, 2008). To this end, cybercriminals utilize computers to commit fraud, theft, stalking, extortion, and aggression. The utilization of computer systems to commit a crime does not essentially alter the legal definitions of the activities at issue. For instance, fraud is fraud, whether conducted traditionally or through computer devices. Furthermore, not all criminal activities are computer-facilitated (De Leeuw & Bergstra, 2008). Cybercrime also has new forms of criminal activities such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, which inflict harm on properties by shutting down websites, thus preventing the operators of websites from undertaking commercial or other activities in which they are involved.

            Cybercrime is a widespread problem that generates adverse social and economic challenges to its victims. The problem has been compounded by widespread computer use by individuals and organizations, both locally and globally. One of the most common definitions of cybercrime is that it is a collection of unlawful acts in which the computer is a tool, target, or both. The computer may be utilized as a channel through which criminal activities are conducted. This problem is especially common when financial crimes or the sale of illegal products are involved. The computer may also be a target of criminal activities in many cases (Dashora, 2011). For instance, unauthorized access to computer systems, theft of intellectual property, as well as email bombing are forms of cybercrime in which computer systems are targets of unlawful acts. Due to the vulnerability of computers to cyber-attacks, laws and security controls are required to protect them against cybercrime. The vulnerability of computers to attacks stem from their capacity to store data in comparatively smaller space. In addition, computers are easy to access. The challenge associated with protecting computer systems from unauthorized access is that there are possibilities of breaches that do not stem from human error but complex technological frameworks (Dashora, 2011). Therefore, the secret implanting of logic bombs and key loggers has the potential to gain access codes, as well as advanced voice recorders. Furthermore, the sophisticated nature of operating systems that have millions of codes opens ways for possible lapses at any given stage.

Cybercrime is a problem that is increasingly attracting local and international concern. Approximately $400 billion is lost annually from cybercrime (Dahabiyeh, 2015). Therefore, the phenomenon poses global economic and security threats. The modern integrated and interlinked nature of multinational corporations increases their susceptibility to security attacks. Security is an issue that is no longer restricted to organizational boundaries. On the contrary, it transcends these confines to include users who operate within the same network (Dahabiyeh, 2015). For instance, the recent Target security breach and hacking of Sony Pictures Entertainment were not brought by inadequate security controls from retailers, but from deficiencies in some of the security systems provided by vendors.

Research Objectives

  1. To investigate different forms of cybercrime in the society.
  2. To investigate common vulnerabilities that result in cybercrime.
  3. To explore security measures that can be used to deter cybercrime.

Research Questions

  1. What are the different forms of cybercrime?
  2. What are the common vulnerabilities that encourage cybercrime?
  3. What security measures and controls can be taken to combat cybercrime?

Significance of the Study

This study focuses on exploring one of the most relevant issues in terms of contemporary criminal justice. Technological progress creates numerous opportunities for commercial activity; however, it also poses severe threats to the well-being of diverse entrepreneurs. Stealing money has never been punishable as in the 21st century. Modern banks and financial services are experiencing a severe threat from numerous hackers and computer-intelligent criminals from the digital domain. Therefore, the topic of cybercrime is a significant and rather painful issue for the contemporary world.

At the same time, this type of crime is relatively new and, although it has attracted much public attention in the last decades, cybercrime can be viewed as a rather under-investigated question. Therefore, the given research presents an attempt to develop an insight into the analyzed topic and its significant properties. The paper aims to synthesize the information from numerous credible sources in order to elaborate an objective approach to the notion of cybercrime. In addition, the research focuses on strategies aimed at the protection from cybercrimes. Such a point makes it rather relevant to anyone who has threatened by the possibility of losing money as a result of the activity of offenders from the digital domain. Even though the present research does not aim to develop an in-depth insight into the observed question, it will present the primary issues related to the analyzed problem. Consequently, it will make the reader familiar with the concept of cybercrime and develop a critical analysis of diverse approaches to the observed concept. Therefore, this paper will be significant due to its general informative value. 

Literature Review

            Cybercrime is a problem that has attracted a lot of scholarly attention. In this regards, numerous studies have been conducted to explore common cybercrime vulnerabilities and control measures that can be used to combat them. These studies have often generated varying results. For instance, Stanciu and Tinca (2017) assert that the leading cause of cybercrime is the economic motivation of the attackers. Using a quantitative survey of people working in corporate environments, the researchers found that most people mention ransom as one of the most common attacks that they encounter daily. Other major attacks take the form of malware, phishing, SQL injection, as well as the loss of mobile. The formal interview also showed that ransomware attacks have grown phenomenally over the last five years. According to Stanciu and Tinca (2017), key loggers and fake antivirus have also increased by 76 percent. Further, the researchers revealed that there has been an increase in the overall level of attacks.

            In an attempt to explore the common factors that result in cyber-attacks, Stanciu and Tinca (2017) found that financial gains, credential theft, as well as denial of service attacks,  are the leading causes of crimes committed in the cyberspace. Thus, Stanciu and Tinca (2017) infer that the most commonly mentioned motivation of attack is financial gain, which is positively correlated with ransomware, which is the most frequent attack. Moreover, the next most frequent motivation is theft of credentials, a factor that can potentially result in speedy financial gain for the cybercriminals. Further, denial of service was ranked third in the list of common motivators of cybercrime. As such, the researchers assert that the desire to realize financial gains influence the most common attacks.

            While clamor for financial gains has been ranked as one of the leading causes of cybercrime, a group of researchers argues that the desire to victimize others drive many cybercriminals. Bergmann et al. (2018) observe that there has been an upsurge in cases of victimization in the cyberspace. In a bid to explore the debate on which factors influence cyber-dependent crime and how they can differ across three kinds of cyber-dependent offenses, Bergmann et al. (2018) assessed a random sample of 26,665 internet users in Germany aged 16 years and older. Their investigations indicated that personal and household variables, together with internet and deterrence behaviors impacted the risks of cyber-related forms of victimizations and bullying. Moreover, the outcomes of victimization vary across three types of offenses: malware, ransomware infections, and misuse of personal data. Therefore, Bergmann et al. (2018) infer that the risk of being victimized by cyber-dependent crime is not the same for all groups of people. To the contrary, it relies on multiple factors based on the ideas proposed by the Routine Activity Approach.

             Researchers have also generated varying views on mechanisms of combating cybercrime. For instance, Kesari, Hofnage, and McCoy (2017) state that policies, procedures, and legislation are some of the most effective mechanisms of deterring cybercrime. In an exploration of how governments, intellectual property custodians, and technology firms respond to cybercrime, Kesari, Hofnage and McCoy (2017) state that laws are utilized to prevent access to intermediaries that are commonly utilized by financially-motivated cybercriminals. Like their licit organizations, illicit companies are dependent upon intermediaries to undertake advertisements, sale, and delivery of products, gathering of payments, and maintenance of a good reputation. When identifying these necessities, law enforcers and policymakers utilize judicial mechanisms, administrative processes, and self-regulatory frameworks to execute deterrence by denial approach. In addition, enforcing actions may have adverse impacts on consumers and others. 

             Licit organizations are prevented from undertaking illegal activities in the cyberspace through fines, threats, and regulatory activities. However, law enforcers may not utilize traditional deterrence mechanisms against financially-motivated cybercriminals. This challenge stems from insufficient financial and technological resources and other more pressing problems that there are confronting. Moreover, law enforcers are restricted by barriers that arise from frustrations from other jurisdictions that may not allow them to investigate cybercrime within their territories. As a result, law enforcement agencies may not sufficiently investigate and prosecute cybercriminals in areas that are outside their domains. In some situations, law enforcers may explore other tough measures such as deterrence which can counter the possible benefits that cybercriminals may realize. According to Kesari, Hofnage, and McCoy (2017), local law enforcement agents face challenges associated with their endeavors to get hold of the actual cybercriminals by stressing on third parties that are critical to organizational activities. In so doing, they deny the criminals easy access to monetary services.  

            Further, researchers increasingly recognize the need for international legislation to combat denial of service attacks. As such, Hui, Kim, and Wang (2017) state that the effects of putting in place the Convention on Cybercrime are that it results in dramatic deterrence on distributed denial of service attacks. Using data comprised of samples of real, random spoof-source DDOS attacks in 106 nations, Hui, Kim, and Wang (2017) found that putting in place the Convention on Cybercrime significantly reduces DDOS attacks by approximately 11 percent. However, the same effects of deterrence do not exist in cases where nations that place enforcements make reservations on international cooperation. Furthermore, Hui Kim and Wang (2017) state that there are indications that cyber attackers are often motivated by financial gains to commit fraud online.  International and local policies play a critical role in promoting mutual support across participating nations in dealing with traffic and stored computer information systems. These agreements help to trace cybercrime. Moreover, international cooperation often heightens the certainty and celerity of apprehending and convicting international cybercriminals. In so doing, they prevent cybercrime. Nonetheless, Hui, Kim, and Wang (2017) caution international agreements over making vague definitions and measures of combating cybercrime. According to them, a lack of clarity on the right steps to take may encourage cybercrime to continue at international levels. 

            Finally, efforts to curb cyber-crime have gone beyond policymaking to incorporate other security controls. Moses and Rowe (2016) explore different mechanisms that can be used to boost internet security. They found that physical security forms an essential component of cyber security architecture and defense. In addition, access controls form a key cornerstone in physical security and have been weaker over time. The most commonly utilized access control measures include authentication, encryption, and physical controls. However, Moses and Rowe (2016) caution that cyber security professionals always overlook physical controls. For instance, mechanical locks are increasingly becoming inefficient in safeguarding information systems devices and resources. As such, Moses and Rowe (2016) propose the utilization of multi-factor authentication as a means to protect informational and cyber resources from unauthorized access.

Analysis

            The purpose of the study was to explore the problem of cybercrime and ways to combat it. In order to achieve these objectives, the study first sought to explore the different forms of cybercrime that affect individuals and businesses in contemporary society. Based on the analyses of literary sources, hacking, ransomware, malware, as well as spyware were identified as the leading ways in which cybercrime is manifested. Out of this list, ransomware and spyware were identified as the most common malicious applications that cyber criminals utilize to undertake fraud in the cyberspace. These findings are in line with the concerns raised by Song, Kim, and Lee (2016) that ransomware and spyware are gaining notoriety as the leading applications for committing cybercrime. According to Song, Kim, and Lee (2016), Ransomware is a form of malicious application that utilizes malicious codes to intrude into a computer system before users can notice it. These malicious software systems often encrypt crucial files and require money using encrypted files as a hostage, and gives monetary damages to users. The widespread increase in the mobile market has made mobile device users as the leading targets of hacking meant to gather illegal financial gains through ransomware.

            The study also sought to determine the leading factors that motivate cybercrime. In this respect, various views were identified. They included the need for financial gains, as well as sadism and bullying to inflict harm. Other factors included: external aggression and intellectual property crimes. Out of these factors; clamor for financial gains and bullying were ranked as the main drivers of involvement in cybercrime. Like the traditional forms of crime, cybercriminals are individuals who use computer technologies to commit financial fraud online. Furthermore, cybercriminals are opportunistic individuals who may be driven by the desire to inflict mental and physical harm to victims, especially through cyberbullying, hurling insults to victims, and blackmailing.

             Finally, the study sought to examine the necessary measures that can be taken to deter or control cybercrime. For analysis, these measures were ranked into three major approaches, including technical controls, administrative controls, and physical controls. The first most common access control mechanism was administrative control, which is mainly executed by developing policies, procedures, laws, and guidelines meant to combat cybercrime. These policies may be developed at both local and international levels.  The study also identified ways in which technical controls may be executed to deter cybercrime. Examples include encryption, use of firewalls, installation of antivirus programs, and introduction of authentication and authorization systems. In particular, multi-factor authentication was identified as one of the most effective ways of deterring hacking and the problem of sharing of passwords. Other technical control mechanisms included the use of intrusion detection and prevention systems, as well as network penetration testing. Finally, physical controls included the use of strong lock mechanisms, surveillance camera, and security personnel.

Conclusion

            The continued dependence on information technologies has transferred crime to the cyberspace. As a result, cybercrime is increasingly posing security and economic threats to nations and individuals. Individuals who commit cybercrime are primarily motivated by the need for illegal, financial gains. Others might be driven by the desire to inflict mental and emotional harm to their victims and targets. Adolescents and young adults are especially vulnerable to mental and emotional blackmails that take place in the cyberspace, a practice referred to as cyber bullying. However, putting in place proper security controls can help to reduce vulnerabilities to cyber security breaches.  The main security controls that are commonly embraced to deter cybercrime include physical controls, technical controls, as well as passage of policies and laws to protect the cyberspace. Therefore, future researchers should focus on improving these security controls.

References

Bergmann, M. C., Dreißigacker, A., Von Skarczinski, B., & Wollinger, G. R. (2018). Cyber-

dependent crime victimization: the same risk for everyone?. Cyberpsychology, Behavior,

and Social Networking21(2), 84-90.

Dahabiyeh, L. (2015). Networks of cybercrime prevention: A process study of the credit card.

Twenty-Third European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Münster, Germany, 2015. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316275759_Networks_of_Cybercrime_Prevention_A_Process_Study_of_the_Credit_Card.

Dashora, K. (2011). Cyber Crime in the society: Problems and

preventions. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 3 (1), 240-259.

De Leeuw, K. M. M., & Bergstra, J. (Eds.). (2008). The history of information security: a

comprehensive handbook. New York: Elsevier.

Kesari, A., Hoofnagle, C., & McCoy, D. (2017). Deterring cybercrime: Focus on

intermediaries. Berkeley Tech. LJ32, 1093.

Moses, S., & Rowe, D. C. (2016). Physical security and cybersecurity: reducing risk by

enhancing physical security posture through multi-factor authentication and other

techniques. International Journal for Information Security Research (IJISR), 6(2), 667-

677.

Song, S., Kim, B., & Lee, S. (2016). The effective ransomware prevention technique using

process monitoring on android platform. Mobile Information Systems2016, 1-9.

Stanciu, V., & Tinca, A. (2017). Exploring cybercrime–realities and challenges. Accounting and

Management Information Systems16(4), 610-632.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tired of Guidelines or Lack Time to Work on Your Paper, Get Original Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Thecustomwriting.com research paper writing service has saved thousands of students from stressful college life. Writing a custom research paper may be challenging, considering it has to be plagiarism-free. And it is better not to do your project than to hand in plagiarized work or hurriedly complete it if you do not have time.

Academic integrity is so vital that you may get a suspension or an expulsion because of a copy-pasted work. Writing a custom research paper requires research and writing skills to produce original content. Here are essential things to know about getting the best and legit assignments help websites.

Perfection is vital

Every website will promise you that they produce high-quality work. However, you put your money for your end-of-semester paper only to get a pass. You must learn how to identify the best writing service before committing.

Thecustomwriting.com produces quality content at all times. Rather than a quality promise, quality assurance is what you should consider before hiring a research writer. Best writing services are reliable. You don't want to partner with a cheap research paper writing service that will deliver poorly written essays hours after the due date.

Quality writers are part of the best writing service. A company that has untrained writers will fail you. Before committing, ensure that the people who will write your paper are academicians and professionals. It would help if you had a writer who will be prompt to respond to your questions and follow instructions. Writers who do not fear to ask for clarification where they don't understand are the best for you.

Beware of Scammers Posing to Provide Custom Research Paper Writing Service

It may take time and effort to find a legit custom research paper writing service. Most of the websites claiming to offer writing service trades your paper with another student. For example, if you order your paper today to submit it next week, you may find that another student has already handed over the same document.

Your money is gone, you have no paper to submit, and the deadline is in two hours. You can only sit and cook up some stories for your lecturer. Otherwise, wait for a penalty or suspension.

Others will give you half-baked papers in the name of cheap essays. Apart from reselling your paper, some companies will offer you copy-pasted work. If you don't have tools such as Turnitin or Copyscape to check plagiarism, you may find yourself in the dean's office explaining why you copied your work from the internet word-to-word.

We offer one of the best research paper writing services in the USA and the U.K.

You won’t regret choosing Thecustomwriting.com to handle your research. Your project is an essential part of your academic work. It determines whether you will move on to the next semester or if your name will appear on the graduation list. Do not gamble your education by hiring any cheap essay writing website you find on the internet. Look for a custom research paper writing service reviews before commit.

Avoid scandals by hiring Thecustomwriting.com. Count yourself lucky if you are reading this article. You are in the right direction in finding the writing service for your paper. Though many websites could have frustrated you, Thecustomwriting.com is committed to providing you with reliable service for your paper.

Thecustomwriting.com offers quality services at affordable prices, and they deliver your work on time. They have native English writers that write your paper using the correct language.

Plagiarism Free Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Our writers understand the seriousness of writing plagiarized papers. Every institution has regulations that govern how a research project is conducted. Universities and colleges take plagiarism as gross misconduct. The best writing services are those that will deliver plagiarism-free papers.

Plagiarism involves, among others, copying a published work and delivering it to your lecturer as your own without acknowledging the sources.

Another way your work can be plagiarized is the failure to include the source of your content in a research paper. If you are using someone's thought, you need to include a reference and in-text citations to show that you are using another scholars' worker.

It's a gross mistake to write a five-page paper without a single source unless the paper's nature does not require you to rely on any sources. Here are some tips our writers use to avoid accidental plagiarism:

  • Cite direct quotes, statistics, and paraphrased content.
  • Ensure that all in-text citations are included in the biography and vice versa.
  • Directly quoting not more than 2% of the paper, if quoting is necessary (some papers are exempted from this rule, especially literature).
  • Stick to high authority, scholarly sources. Our writers will hardly paraphrase content from third party blogs and other questionable sites.
  • Consider Buying A Custom Research Paper from Thecustomwriting.Com

    Consider hiring an expert essay writer if you are not sure about your capabilities. Referencing and citations can be challenging, especially if you try to do it for the first time. It's even harder when your lecturer asks you to use a hard referencing style. For example, Harvard requires you to include page numbers, dates, and the author's name in the text. If you have several papers with a strict deadline, you should consider hiring a custom research paper writing service to help you work on your essays.

    However, ensure the website you want to hire offers legit writing service. A good website should at least charge for its services. You will find many websites willing to provide you with free services. No one is that idle to sit and write a paper for free. Sites that provide free or cheap services hooks you when you least expect.

    Also, consider the price of writing a paper. Though cheap essays are of low quality, other sites may have inflated prices for their rate, making you needlessly break your bank.

    Thecustomwriting.com understands the need for a fair and reasonable price for most students. We know that most students need service, but they do not have enough resources. We, therefore, offer quality service that you can afford.

    Benefits of using custom research paper writing service

    If this is your first time considering using a custom writing service, the first thing is to know why taking such an action is the best. Choosing Thecustomwriting.com ensures professional writers handle your paper. Letting a qualified person handle your project can boost your grade. You cannot afford to fail in the upcoming end-of-semester project. In any case, your progress to the next level will be determined by how well you perform in your essay.

    Thecustomwriting.com ensures the timely delivery of your work. The good thing about legit essay writers is that they can write your essay within the shortest time possible, with one page taking up to one hour at most. It doesn't matter what time you want your work done: Thecustomwriting.com is always ready for a task.

    We will give you a paper written explicitly for you. We will ensure that your paper is not delivered to someone else.

    Come to think of this; if five of your classmates decide to order an essay for the same class, five writers will be assigned to work on different papers instead of paraphrasing one paper and sending it to five of you.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Do subject specialist writers handle my research paper?

    It's our responsibility to ensure that someone from your field handles your paper. Our company has enough writers from every discipline. We provide only a research writer qualified in your subject to handle your paper. After placing an order, the first step is to screen the question and requirement and match it with the best writer. The less qualified writer has a college diploma, and they only handle high school papers. All other writers are bachelor, masters, and PhD degree holders.

    Are your researchers qualified enough to know the core of the research?

    We commit to quality content. We understand that failure to deliver quality service will result in the loss of clients. Therefore, we only hire qualified writers who have an in-depth understanding of your paper. Whether you want quantitative research done using Chi-square or qualitative research, Thecustomwriting.com’s writers will comfortably handle any discipline or type of paper. Besides, we offer research paper service from college to PhD. Therefore, we cannot afford to have unqualified writers. Our researchers take every instruction keenly when writing your essay.

    Should I worry about order placement?

    There is nothing to worry about placing your order. Our platform has a simple, user-friendly interface that enables you to navigate to different functionalities with ease. We offer quality custom research paper writing services; thus, you don't have to worry about getting value for your money. Besides, you can track your order's progress. Our system progressively send you email notifications regarding every stage of your orders' progress; thus, you don't even have to log in to track down your order. You will also see the progress on the dashboard when you log in. Moreover, our support team will contact you when the writer needs any clarification.

    Can I have direct communication with the writer after the order placement?

    Our system is designed in such a way that it allows you to communicate with your writer directly. We understand the need to clarify things yourself to the writer. Furthermore, our support team is available 24 hours to ensure that urgent matters are communicated swiftly with the writer.

    Will I get any discount on recommendation?

    The answer is yes. We value your efforts and trust to recommend us to your friends. We will offer you a discount on your next order if a client mentions your email when placing an order.

    What guarantees should customers look for?

    We have a written list of what we guarantee our clients in our terms. We guarantee the quality, confidentiality, free revision, original content, and timely delivery. We also guarantee money-back if, in the unlikely event, you are not happy with the quality of the paper.

    What makes a reliable writing company?

    It's easy to know a reputable company. First, they are transparent about their services. They offer multiple methods of communication and have qualified writers. Most importantly, they deliver your work on time, deliver original content, and honour what they have guaranteed.

    Why should customers not opt for cheap essay writing services?

    Cheap essay services will only waste your time. They have foreign writers who will produce plagiarized content full of grammar errors. You will waste your precious time waiting for a paper that you can't give your lecturer.

    Is buying essays online safe?

    It's safe to buy your essay if you take the right precaution. Before putting your money on a strange site, explore the website to see whether you will get customer reviews. They will help you make the right decision.

    How do I hire someone to write an essay for me?

    These are common questions with most clients. It's effortless to get a professional writer. The first step is to identify a custom research paper writing service that is legit and sign up. After that, they will guide you on how to place your order and get a writer. Some companies will allow you to choose a writer for yourself or choose a writer for you.

    What types of writing services can I order online?

    Our website offers a variety of legit essay services. We provide any academic assistance, including research projects, assignments, and admission letters. Visit our website to see what each service entails.

    What benefits and additional features do Thecustomwriting.com services offer?

    We offer several free services to our customers. We offer free revision, a discount on your first order, and free pages such as references and cover pages. Also, we have a quality control department that ensures that all papers are of high quality before delivering them to you.

    Do websites maintain your privacy? Are orders secured?

    Your privacy is our top priority. You will be recognized by your I.D. assigned to you after signup instead of your name. The only person who can access your account is you or anyone else you give your password. Your payment is through a third party. Therefore, your personal information will never reach our site without your consent.

    What are the pros of ordering from custom writing services?

    You get quality papers. We have writers with decades of experience delivering quality papers worth the client's money and much more. We understand your power to influence our progress. Your paper will be delivered on time and written by professional writers.

    Hire a professional writer

    Now that you know what to look for when considering the custom research paper writing services, it's time to try us. Sign up and get a discount on your first order. You don't have to worry about quality, timely delivery, and price. We know they are essential to you.

    Calculate your order
    Pages (275 words)
    Standard price: $0.00
    Client Reviews
    4.9
    Sitejabber
    4.6
    Trustpilot
    4.8
    Our Guarantees
    100% Confidentiality
    Information about customers is confidential and never disclosed to third parties.
    Original Writing
    We complete all papers from scratch. You can get a plagiarism report.
    Timely Delivery
    No missed deadlines – 97% of assignments are completed in time.
    Money Back
    If you're confident that a writer didn't follow your order details, ask for a refund.

    Calculate the price of your order

    You will get a personal manager and a discount.
    We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
    Total price:
    $0.00
    Power up Your Academic Success with the
    Team of Professionals. We’ve Got Your Back.
    Power up Your Study Success with Experts We’ve Got Your Back.