Case Study: HIV/AIDS

Pathology of the Disease

            HIV infection begins without symptoms or ill-feeling. This process is accompanied by slight changes in the immune system. The stage spans up to three months following infection until seroconverson takes place, the process by which HIV-related antibodies can be detected by individuals after recent exposure (Naif, 2013). The impacts of infections and length of the disease progression with clinical symptoms usually differ widely from one person to another. However, it is usually a gradual process. Seroconversion may take many years to transition from primary infection to the ultimate development of symptoms of advanced HIV.

 During primary infection, while the patient may appear healthy, the virus actively replicates within the lymph nodes and blood stream of the infected person. As a consequence, the immune system can be vulnerable to other opportunistic infections. Examples of these infections may include Pneumocystis carinni, candidacies, Mycobacterium avium, as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is widely acknowledged that the infected persons usually develop AIDS when their plasma HIV viral load is high (Naif, 2013). During this phase, the CD4+ T count is usually less than 200 mm3. Nonetheless, the presence of highly active antiretroviral therapy may generate the dilemma on whether everybody who sereconverts to HIC will develop AIDS. One of the ways in which HIV debilitates the immune system is through infecting and destroying the CD4+ T cells. The process of weakening such cells results in immunodeficiency at latter phase of the disease. HIC usually adheres to the surface of CD4+ proteins in a manner that is sufficient to give room for entry. Nonetheless, the availability of CD4+ molecules along is sufficient proof not to allow the viral entry into other cell forms such as monocytes and dendric cells. As such, a second pathway is often required to gain access to infect cells (Naif, 2013). This phenomenon results to the identification of chemokine receptors, which are basic coreceptors for hiv-1.

Diagnosis and Laboratory Findings

            The diagnosis procedure for HIV is founded on the identification of specific antibodies, antigens, and both. From a laboratory perspective, there are numerous types of commercial kits, which are utilized to diagnose the infection. Serological tests are the most common methods that are utilized for screening (Davis et al. 2013). In the recent times, the advent of the rapid HIV-1 antibody tests has radically transformed the process of diagnosis. These tools and tasks are easy to perform and they generate findings within 20 minutes of undertaking the tests. Moreover, they allow for specimen gathering and effective diagnosis upon a single visit. Rapid tests are resourceful instruments for undertaking surveillance, screening, and diagnosis. They can be reliably undertaken on plasma, serum, entire blood and saliva by healthcare professionals. For the sake of staging, assessment of CD4+ cells and viraemia are needed (Davis et al. 2013). Plasma viral load is broadly utilized for the monitoring of therapeutic success on antiretroviral treatment. Various tests offer sensitive process of quantifying plasma HIV-RNA copies. Although the viral load can be used to determine the pace at which the immune system is being destroyed, the number of CD4+ cell cells often reveals the extent to which the patient suffers from immunodeficiency. Therefore, this tool is utilized to evaluate the phases of infection.

Signs and Symptoms

            There are no signs and symptoms that are distinct to HIV/AIDS. Therefore, the best way for determining HIV is to go for a test. HIV virus spreads via body fluids that attack the human’s immune system. Most People who have HIV may not feel sick for a long time. Nonetheless, HIV infection can lead to various symptoms, which vary depending on how long a patient has been infected. For many patients, flu-like symptoms often develop a few weeks after infection. These symptoms are characterized by fever, sore throat, as well as swollen glands in the neck. Since the disease damages the immune system, the patient develops other complications during the later stages of HIV. During that time, opportunistic infections that become common include Tuberculosis, Pneumositis, Kaposi Sarcoma, as well as candidiasis.

Genetic Component to the Disease

            HIV/AIDS is not a hereditary disease. However, genetic factors may play a significant role in determining HIV vulnerability. Genetic factors also influence mother-to-child-transmission and the progression of the disease. Out of these common genetic mediators, those that impact innate and adaptive immune system often seem to play a major role in the viral infectivity and pathogenesis. For instance, during primary infection, CCR5-utilizing virus is predominantly transmitted. Thus, polymorphisms that adversely affect the expression of CCR5 may alter the mother to child transmission and the rate of the disease progression.


            Antiretroviral treatment provides the best option for long-lasting viral suppression and, consequently, reduction of morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, recent drugs do not eliminate the HIV-1 infection; therefore, lifelong treatment is often required (Davis et al. 2013). Approximately 20 out of 21 antiretroviral drugs have been approved by the US food and Drug Administration (FDA). These drugs usually target the viral reverse transcriptase or protease. Eight nucleoside or nucleotide analogues and three non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors often inhibit the process of viral replication after cell entry before integration (Davis et al. 2013). The utilization of fixed-dose combination tablets eases the treatment regiments through minimization of the daily pill burden.


Davis, D. H., Smith, R., Brown, A., Rice, B., Yin, Z., & Delpech, V. (2013). Early diagnosis and

treatment of HIV infection: magnitude of benefit on short-term mortality is greatest in

older adults. Age and Ageing42(4), 520-526.

Naif, H. M. (2013). Pathogenesis of HIV infection. Infectious Disease Reports5(Suppl 1).


Tired of Guidelines or Lack Time to Work on Your Paper, Get Original Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Thecustomwriting.com research paper writing service has saved thousands of students from stressful college life. Writing a custom research paper may be challenging, considering it has to be plagiarism-free. And it is better not to do your project than to hand in plagiarized work or hurriedly complete it if you do not have time.

Academic integrity is so vital that you may get a suspension or an expulsion because of a copy-pasted work. Writing a custom research paper requires research and writing skills to produce original content. Here are essential things to know about getting the best and legit assignments help websites.

Perfection is vital

Every website will promise you that they produce high-quality work. However, you put your money for your end-of-semester paper only to get a pass. You must learn how to identify the best writing service before committing.

Thecustomwriting.com produces quality content at all times. Rather than a quality promise, quality assurance is what you should consider before hiring a research writer. Best writing services are reliable. You don't want to partner with a cheap research paper writing service that will deliver poorly written essays hours after the due date.

Quality writers are part of the best writing service. A company that has untrained writers will fail you. Before committing, ensure that the people who will write your paper are academicians and professionals. It would help if you had a writer who will be prompt to respond to your questions and follow instructions. Writers who do not fear to ask for clarification where they don't understand are the best for you.

Beware of Scammers Posing to Provide Custom Research Paper Writing Service

It may take time and effort to find a legit custom research paper writing service. Most of the websites claiming to offer writing service trades your paper with another student. For example, if you order your paper today to submit it next week, you may find that another student has already handed over the same document.

Your money is gone, you have no paper to submit, and the deadline is in two hours. You can only sit and cook up some stories for your lecturer. Otherwise, wait for a penalty or suspension.

Others will give you half-baked papers in the name of cheap essays. Apart from reselling your paper, some companies will offer you copy-pasted work. If you don't have tools such as Turnitin or Copyscape to check plagiarism, you may find yourself in the dean's office explaining why you copied your work from the internet word-to-word.

We offer one of the best research paper writing services in the USA and the U.K.

You won’t regret choosing Thecustomwriting.com to handle your research. Your project is an essential part of your academic work. It determines whether you will move on to the next semester or if your name will appear on the graduation list. Do not gamble your education by hiring any cheap essay writing website you find on the internet. Look for a custom research paper writing service reviews before commit.

Avoid scandals by hiring Thecustomwriting.com. Count yourself lucky if you are reading this article. You are in the right direction in finding the writing service for your paper. Though many websites could have frustrated you, Thecustomwriting.com is committed to providing you with reliable service for your paper.

Thecustomwriting.com offers quality services at affordable prices, and they deliver your work on time. They have native English writers that write your paper using the correct language.

Plagiarism Free Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Our writers understand the seriousness of writing plagiarized papers. Every institution has regulations that govern how a research project is conducted. Universities and colleges take plagiarism as gross misconduct. The best writing services are those that will deliver plagiarism-free papers.

Plagiarism involves, among others, copying a published work and delivering it to your lecturer as your own without acknowledging the sources.

Another way your work can be plagiarized is the failure to include the source of your content in a research paper. If you are using someone's thought, you need to include a reference and in-text citations to show that you are using another scholars' worker.

It's a gross mistake to write a five-page paper without a single source unless the paper's nature does not require you to rely on any sources. Here are some tips our writers use to avoid accidental plagiarism:

  • Cite direct quotes, statistics, and paraphrased content.
  • Ensure that all in-text citations are included in the biography and vice versa.
  • Directly quoting not more than 2% of the paper, if quoting is necessary (some papers are exempted from this rule, especially literature).
  • Stick to high authority, scholarly sources. Our writers will hardly paraphrase content from third party blogs and other questionable sites.
  • Consider Buying A Custom Research Paper from Thecustomwriting.Com

    Consider hiring an expert essay writer if you are not sure about your capabilities. Referencing and citations can be challenging, especially if you try to do it for the first time. It's even harder when your lecturer asks you to use a hard referencing style. For example, Harvard requires you to include page numbers, dates, and the author's name in the text. If you have several papers with a strict deadline, you should consider hiring a custom research paper writing service to help you work on your essays.

    However, ensure the website you want to hire offers legit writing service. A good website should at least charge for its services. You will find many websites willing to provide you with free services. No one is that idle to sit and write a paper for free. Sites that provide free or cheap services hooks you when you least expect.

    Also, consider the price of writing a paper. Though cheap essays are of low quality, other sites may have inflated prices for their rate, making you needlessly break your bank.

    Thecustomwriting.com understands the need for a fair and reasonable price for most students. We know that most students need service, but they do not have enough resources. We, therefore, offer quality service that you can afford.

    Benefits of using custom research paper writing service

    If this is your first time considering using a custom writing service, the first thing is to know why taking such an action is the best. Choosing Thecustomwriting.com ensures professional writers handle your paper. Letting a qualified person handle your project can boost your grade. You cannot afford to fail in the upcoming end-of-semester project. In any case, your progress to the next level will be determined by how well you perform in your essay.

    Thecustomwriting.com ensures the timely delivery of your work. The good thing about legit essay writers is that they can write your essay within the shortest time possible, with one page taking up to one hour at most. It doesn't matter what time you want your work done: Thecustomwriting.com is always ready for a task.

    We will give you a paper written explicitly for you. We will ensure that your paper is not delivered to someone else.

    Come to think of this; if five of your classmates decide to order an essay for the same class, five writers will be assigned to work on different papers instead of paraphrasing one paper and sending it to five of you.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Do subject specialist writers handle my research paper?

    It's our responsibility to ensure that someone from your field handles your paper. Our company has enough writers from every discipline. We provide only a research writer qualified in your subject to handle your paper. After placing an order, the first step is to screen the question and requirement and match it with the best writer. The less qualified writer has a college diploma, and they only handle high school papers. All other writers are bachelor, masters, and PhD degree holders.

    Are your researchers qualified enough to know the core of the research?

    We commit to quality content. We understand that failure to deliver quality service will result in the loss of clients. Therefore, we only hire qualified writers who have an in-depth understanding of your paper. Whether you want quantitative research done using Chi-square or qualitative research, Thecustomwriting.com’s writers will comfortably handle any discipline or type of paper. Besides, we offer research paper service from college to PhD. Therefore, we cannot afford to have unqualified writers. Our researchers take every instruction keenly when writing your essay.

    Should I worry about order placement?

    There is nothing to worry about placing your order. Our platform has a simple, user-friendly interface that enables you to navigate to different functionalities with ease. We offer quality custom research paper writing services; thus, you don't have to worry about getting value for your money. Besides, you can track your order's progress. Our system progressively send you email notifications regarding every stage of your orders' progress; thus, you don't even have to log in to track down your order. You will also see the progress on the dashboard when you log in. Moreover, our support team will contact you when the writer needs any clarification.

    Can I have direct communication with the writer after the order placement?

    Our system is designed in such a way that it allows you to communicate with your writer directly. We understand the need to clarify things yourself to the writer. Furthermore, our support team is available 24 hours to ensure that urgent matters are communicated swiftly with the writer.

    Will I get any discount on recommendation?

    The answer is yes. We value your efforts and trust to recommend us to your friends. We will offer you a discount on your next order if a client mentions your email when placing an order.

    What guarantees should customers look for?

    We have a written list of what we guarantee our clients in our terms. We guarantee the quality, confidentiality, free revision, original content, and timely delivery. We also guarantee money-back if, in the unlikely event, you are not happy with the quality of the paper.

    What makes a reliable writing company?

    It's easy to know a reputable company. First, they are transparent about their services. They offer multiple methods of communication and have qualified writers. Most importantly, they deliver your work on time, deliver original content, and honour what they have guaranteed.

    Why should customers not opt for cheap essay writing services?

    Cheap essay services will only waste your time. They have foreign writers who will produce plagiarized content full of grammar errors. You will waste your precious time waiting for a paper that you can't give your lecturer.

    Is buying essays online safe?

    It's safe to buy your essay if you take the right precaution. Before putting your money on a strange site, explore the website to see whether you will get customer reviews. They will help you make the right decision.

    How do I hire someone to write an essay for me?

    These are common questions with most clients. It's effortless to get a professional writer. The first step is to identify a custom research paper writing service that is legit and sign up. After that, they will guide you on how to place your order and get a writer. Some companies will allow you to choose a writer for yourself or choose a writer for you.

    What types of writing services can I order online?

    Our website offers a variety of legit essay services. We provide any academic assistance, including research projects, assignments, and admission letters. Visit our website to see what each service entails.

    What benefits and additional features do Thecustomwriting.com services offer?

    We offer several free services to our customers. We offer free revision, a discount on your first order, and free pages such as references and cover pages. Also, we have a quality control department that ensures that all papers are of high quality before delivering them to you.

    Do websites maintain your privacy? Are orders secured?

    Your privacy is our top priority. You will be recognized by your I.D. assigned to you after signup instead of your name. The only person who can access your account is you or anyone else you give your password. Your payment is through a third party. Therefore, your personal information will never reach our site without your consent.

    What are the pros of ordering from custom writing services?

    You get quality papers. We have writers with decades of experience delivering quality papers worth the client's money and much more. We understand your power to influence our progress. Your paper will be delivered on time and written by professional writers.

    Hire a professional writer

    Now that you know what to look for when considering the custom research paper writing services, it's time to try us. Sign up and get a discount on your first order. You don't have to worry about quality, timely delivery, and price. We know they are essential to you.

    Calculate your order
    Pages (275 words)
    Standard price: $0.00
    Client Reviews
    Our Guarantees
    100% Confidentiality
    Information about customers is confidential and never disclosed to third parties.
    Original Writing
    We complete all papers from scratch. You can get a plagiarism report.
    Timely Delivery
    No missed deadlines – 97% of assignments are completed in time.
    Money Back
    If you're confident that a writer didn't follow your order details, ask for a refund.

    Calculate the price of your order

    You will get a personal manager and a discount.
    We'll send you the first draft for approval by at
    Total price:
    Power up Your Academic Success with the
    Team of Professionals. We’ve Got Your Back.
    Power up Your Study Success with Experts We’ve Got Your Back.