fbpx

HOW SHOULD WE JUDGE THE VALUE OF PRESS FREEDOM?

            The 20th century, especially before the Second World War, press freedom was an uncommon thing, despite its protection in democratic countries such as the United States. Press freedom was constrained for the most part because of state interference in the dissemination of information. There were no checks and balances when it came to sexism, racism, and political malpractices such as the spread of propaganda. Press freedom was limited to what was sanctioned by the establishment. The rise of totalitarian states such as Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during this period is evidence of the problems wrought on society by the proliferation of one-sided ideas about political movements and their leaders. Figures such as Hitler and Stalin were a fictitious creation by the propaganda machine in their respective sociopolitical movements to constrain the ability of the citizens to make informed decisions about elections.

Also, there were misleading social commentaries on issues such as gender and race, thereby ensuring that racial, gender, and other stereotypes persisted regardless of mounting evidence that demonstrated their invalidity. However, attributing the improvements in the sociopolitical landscape after the U.S.’s victory in the war through subsequent social and political movements is perhaps too bold a claim to make. There are indications that improvements in press freedom and access to information contributed significantly to the improvements, but these occurred within the democratic framework of the U.S. and its stewardship of the international community towards democracy. The paper argues that the concept of press freedom only has validity within a democratic framework and a particular sociopolitical context.

            The United States Constitution enshrines press freedom under the First Amendment. Press freedom refers to the ability of a free and independent press to disseminate truth information or facts objectively about the countries, governments, and social contexts within which people live. The most important elements of the definition are objectivity and truth. People deserve to have the facts objectively presented to them so that they can make decisions concerning their sociopolitical contexts (Miller 2015). However, the ability to make informed decisions based on facts is dependent on the analytical abilities of the populace, which is a matter of education. Considering the sociopolitical improvements made so far since the Second World War, the global populace has acquired information and put it into practice without the necessity for totalitarian authority to drive transformative sociopolitical movements. This suggests that an informed public can make decisions that are conducive to the welfare of the collective, which was something the status quo or society’s elite rejected before the war. However, there are instances when the public makes decisions that are contrary to the best interests of the collective, such as the recent election of Donald Trump to the White House.

            Political and social commentators, especially of the progressive democratic political inclination, have cited the potential political and social threat posed by a Trump win. His win over Hillary Clinton was relatively unexpected because of the contention that the U.S.’s espousal of democratic values would lead to an automatic rejection of Trump’s demagoguery. Since he won, commentators in the media have struggled to understand the social dynamics in the country that created the sociopolitical substructure that propelled Trump into office. They fear a reversal of the gains made in combating gender and racial discrimination and promoting democratic values within and outside the U.S. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists (2016), Trump’s presidency is also a threat to press freedom. Therefore, the fact that the electorate decided to elect Trump to the presidency is a conundrum based on the arguments advanced so far. In a free and fair election in which the media has the press freedom to report truthful facts, the electorate should make a choice that advances the interests of the collective and protects the gains made so far.

             Kalenborn and Lessman (2013) provide research into the link between democracy and press freedom in reducing or limiting political corruption, such as demagoguery and abuse of human rights through economic or physical suppression. The researchers report that there is a voter-legislator relationship that determines the outcomes of a democratic process, which is mediated by the level of press freedom. The voters cannot influence the decisions of the legislators directly, but through the voting process, they can change legislators, principally changing the associated legislations as well (Kalenborn & Lessman 2013; Ahrend 2000; Brunetti 2003). According to The Atlantic Philanthropies (2010), in developing democracies such as South Africa, press freedom plays a crucial role in social justice, reducing corruption and engendering the respect for legislation meant to protect people.

However, the problem of the majority vote is still a problem since the majority might not express what is truthful or conducive to the collective’s welfare, such as South Africa’s election of Thabo Mbeki, an Aids denier. Despite a democratic framework with press freedom, there are instances such as the Gulf and the Iraq war in which journalists acted as mouthpieces for the government, thereby leading to gross violations of human rights sanctioned by the electorate. Miller (2015) reports that during Bush’s term as president, he passed the pro-secrecy legislations that protected revelation of presidential records, thereby limiting the capacity of a journalist to acquire and disseminate information about the president’s activity while in office (Miller 2015). Such events raise questions about what press freedom refers to within a democratic setting. The state and the independent press have always sought to acquire a monopoly over what press freedom means, whether and when limits should be imposed to protect the public from misleading information. This tug of war has reached fever point in the current sociopolitical landscape.

            President Obama who has highly favorable poll ratings among the public claimed to be a proponent of press freedom during a CBS News interview. The president noted that in some countries, there was active suppression of the free press, thereby undermining the ability of the people to protect their rights and make informed decisions based on truthful facts. However, Miller (2015) reports that Obama’s administration has itself sought to limit press freedom when the facts presented by journalists could portray a damaging picture of the government. The Obama administration limited access to public documents, which is a right guaranteed under the Freedom of Information Act. The government considers the restricted information as sensitive information that could harm the collective if released (Miller 2015).

However, should the government have the right to decide which information is accessible to the public through the press and which is not? In principle, democracy demands that the public should have access to such information when there is no immediate danger if the government releases the information. Leakers and whistleblowers such as Edward Snowden have demonstrated governments can cover up covert projects such as unconstitutional surveillance and conceal such projects through withholding information from the public. Comparing press freedom in Russia to the U.S. might provide insights on whether press freedom should at least be selectively constrained for the collective good.

            During the 1990s, Russia started sliding back to a totalitarian political leaning, especially when Vladimir Putin, a former KGB officer, made it into the Kremlin. Podrabinek (2014) points out that since Russia could not go against public opinion in a direct manner, it sought to gag the press and replace truthful reporting of facts with propaganda. This technique is one characteristic of most totalitarian regimes since control of information guarantees the control of the electorate. In such a political context, the ability of the electorate to remove legislators from political positions is severely limited. Moreover, the information they receive from such regimes is biased in which case they may believe it yet it is incorrect. Kalenborn and Lessman’s (2013) analysis of democracy and press freedom supports the contention that all totalitarian regimes must gag the press to ensure continued existence. Such regimes are aware that allowing the press to be free can compromise their ideologies. Moreover, the truths and wrongs of their activities are likely to be exposed.

Within the digital information age, there is little evidence to suggest that individuals who need information cannot access it through independent means. There is more information proliferation and access now than at any time in history, which begs the question whether the democracy-press freedom link clearly explains the role of press freedom. In Russia, a demagogue leader deliberately manipulates information to pander to the masses or influence legislation and policies while the opposite is seemingly the case in the U.S. There should be a difference in outcomes in political decisions between the two countries, which was not apparent in the previously concluded U.S. elections. Kalenborn and Lessman’s (2013) and other researchers cited strongly suggest that the electorate should vote to change the legislature for their best interests provided there is press freedom.

            Trump’s victory is perceivably against the U.S. best interests, which is a contention held by most sociopolitical commentators. His connection with Russia has received widespread attention. Regarding media freedom, Trump’s attitude is uncannily similar to Putin’s, which should have incited the electorate to vote against him by all expectations of a state with a functioning democratic system and highly free press. Evidence of Trump’s assault on press freedom comes from his statements about Russia’s suppression of the press.

According to the Committee to Protect Journalists (2016), when a journalist asked Trump about his visible Putin admiration, he stated, “He’s running his country, and at least he’s a leader, unlike what we have in this country” (Committee to Protect Journalists 2016; Eichenwald 2016). This response suggests that Trump favored Putin’s approach to an effective political system than is currently practiced in the U.S. President Obama’s administration, although to a lesser extent, also expressed reservations about ‘leaking’ or releasing some public documents despite having laws guaranteeing such release because it would be against public interest (Miller 2015). The research shows that there are limits on press freedom even in the most democratic country. These limits, apparently supposed to protect the public from sensitive information, are blurry and subject to contextual factors. The context, rather than the principals espoused by a democracy, is the most important element of defining what press freedom is or is not. 

            There is an increasing backlash against the press from state and non-state elements in the current context, especially in established democracies. The U.S. mainstream media’s inability to foresee a Trump win is evidence that the press has increasingly disconnected from its audience because of narrowly defined agendas in women’s rights and foreign policy. Rather than providing facts for analysis to the public to inform their decision-making, the press has increasingly sought to define public agenda, thereby limiting their objectivity in reporting (Karlekar 2010; Miller 2016). This might explain why despite Trump’s assault on media freedom, the electorate elected him to the office. The collective therefore did not act against their best interests, which means that the link between democracy and press freedom is accurately presented in the research as long as contextual factors are considered. There are no indications that the American electorate preferred a Putin-like presidency or a reversal of the social gains enabled by an increasingly free press since the 1940s.

            The research finds that the difficulty in defining press freedom, its limits and its uses, comes from the influence of contextual factors on information dissemination to the public. Currently, press freedom has a deleterious effect on the public because of the agenda-setting and subjective bias that comes with it. Media houses have resorted to political affiliations, such as the Republican-leaning Fox News and the Democrat-leaning liberal news media. Within such a context, the backlash against free press is an inevitable consequence. Trump’s victory in the U.S. is a clear signal that the electorate is unhappy with media reporting on sociopolitical issues that affect them. The unprecedented win demonstrates the disconnect between the press and the electorate it is supposed to serve. The inevitable consequence is a distrust of the media and usurping of political power by demagogues that take advantage of a failed news-reporting context to undermine democracy. Press freedom is meaningful only within a democracy emanates from democratic political structures.

References List

Ahrend, R 2000, Press freedom, human capital and corruption, DELTA, Paris.

Brunetti, A 2003, A Free Press is Bad News for Corruption. Available

From: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047272701001864 [12 December 2016]

Eichenwald, K 2016, Why Vladimir Putin’s Russia Is Backing Donald Trump. Available

From: http://europe.newsweek.com/donald-trump-vladimir-putin-russia-hillary-clinton-united-states-europe-516895?rm=eu [12 December 2016]

Committee to Protect Journalists 2016, CPJ chairman says Trump is threat to press freedom.

Available From: https://cpj.org/2016/10/cpj-chairman-says-trump-is-threat-to-press-freedom.php [12 December 2016]

Kalenborn, C., and Lessmann, C 2013, ‘The impact of democracy and press freedom on

corruption: Conditionality matters,’ Journal of Policy Modeling, vol. 35 no. 6, pp.857-886.

Karlekar, K.D 2011, Press Freedom in 2010: Signs of change amid repression. Available From:

http://mediajogfigyelo.hu/uploads/files/0_Freedom_House_2011_OverviewEssay.pdf [12 December 2016].

Miller, J 2015, Obama: Press freedom “vital” to democracy. Available From:

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/obama-press-freedom-vital-to-democracy/ [12 December 2016].

Miller, B 2016, Backlash Against Trump Continues In The Press and On the Streets. Available

From: http://sopusa.net/backlash-trump-continues-press-streets/ [12 December 2016].

Podrabinek, A 2014, Totalitarianism and Freedom of Speech. Available From:

http://imrussia.org/en/society/763-totalitarianism-and-freedom-of-speech [12 December 2016].

The Atlantic Philanthropies 2014, Press freedom is a pillar of democracy. Available From:

http://www.atlanticphilanthropies.org/news/press-freedom-pillar-democracy-mzilikazi-wa-afrika [12 December 2016].

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tired of Guidelines or Lack Time to Work on Your Paper, Get Original Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Thecustomwriting.com research paper writing service has saved thousands of students from stressful college life. Writing a custom research paper may be challenging, considering it has to be plagiarism-free. And it is better not to do your project than to hand in plagiarized work or hurriedly complete it if you do not have time.

Academic integrity is so vital that you may get a suspension or an expulsion because of a copy-pasted work. Writing a custom research paper requires research and writing skills to produce original content. Here are essential things to know about getting the best and legit assignments help websites.

Perfection is vital

Every website will promise you that they produce high-quality work. However, you put your money for your end-of-semester paper only to get a pass. You must learn how to identify the best writing service before committing.

Thecustomwriting.com produces quality content at all times. Rather than a quality promise, quality assurance is what you should consider before hiring a research writer. Best writing services are reliable. You don't want to partner with a cheap research paper writing service that will deliver poorly written essays hours after the due date.

Quality writers are part of the best writing service. A company that has untrained writers will fail you. Before committing, ensure that the people who will write your paper are academicians and professionals. It would help if you had a writer who will be prompt to respond to your questions and follow instructions. Writers who do not fear to ask for clarification where they don't understand are the best for you.

Beware of Scammers Posing to Provide Custom Research Paper Writing Service

It may take time and effort to find a legit custom research paper writing service. Most of the websites claiming to offer writing service trades your paper with another student. For example, if you order your paper today to submit it next week, you may find that another student has already handed over the same document.

Your money is gone, you have no paper to submit, and the deadline is in two hours. You can only sit and cook up some stories for your lecturer. Otherwise, wait for a penalty or suspension.

Others will give you half-baked papers in the name of cheap essays. Apart from reselling your paper, some companies will offer you copy-pasted work. If you don't have tools such as Turnitin or Copyscape to check plagiarism, you may find yourself in the dean's office explaining why you copied your work from the internet word-to-word.

We offer one of the best research paper writing services in the USA and the U.K.

You won’t regret choosing Thecustomwriting.com to handle your research. Your project is an essential part of your academic work. It determines whether you will move on to the next semester or if your name will appear on the graduation list. Do not gamble your education by hiring any cheap essay writing website you find on the internet. Look for a custom research paper writing service reviews before commit.

Avoid scandals by hiring Thecustomwriting.com. Count yourself lucky if you are reading this article. You are in the right direction in finding the writing service for your paper. Though many websites could have frustrated you, Thecustomwriting.com is committed to providing you with reliable service for your paper.

Thecustomwriting.com offers quality services at affordable prices, and they deliver your work on time. They have native English writers that write your paper using the correct language.

Plagiarism Free Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Our writers understand the seriousness of writing plagiarized papers. Every institution has regulations that govern how a research project is conducted. Universities and colleges take plagiarism as gross misconduct. The best writing services are those that will deliver plagiarism-free papers.

Plagiarism involves, among others, copying a published work and delivering it to your lecturer as your own without acknowledging the sources.

Another way your work can be plagiarized is the failure to include the source of your content in a research paper. If you are using someone's thought, you need to include a reference and in-text citations to show that you are using another scholars' worker.

It's a gross mistake to write a five-page paper without a single source unless the paper's nature does not require you to rely on any sources. Here are some tips our writers use to avoid accidental plagiarism:

  • Cite direct quotes, statistics, and paraphrased content.
  • Ensure that all in-text citations are included in the biography and vice versa.
  • Directly quoting not more than 2% of the paper, if quoting is necessary (some papers are exempted from this rule, especially literature).
  • Stick to high authority, scholarly sources. Our writers will hardly paraphrase content from third party blogs and other questionable sites.
  • Consider Buying A Custom Research Paper from Thecustomwriting.Com

    Consider hiring an expert essay writer if you are not sure about your capabilities. Referencing and citations can be challenging, especially if you try to do it for the first time. It's even harder when your lecturer asks you to use a hard referencing style. For example, Harvard requires you to include page numbers, dates, and the author's name in the text. If you have several papers with a strict deadline, you should consider hiring a custom research paper writing service to help you work on your essays.

    However, ensure the website you want to hire offers legit writing service. A good website should at least charge for its services. You will find many websites willing to provide you with free services. No one is that idle to sit and write a paper for free. Sites that provide free or cheap services hooks you when you least expect.

    Also, consider the price of writing a paper. Though cheap essays are of low quality, other sites may have inflated prices for their rate, making you needlessly break your bank.

    Thecustomwriting.com understands the need for a fair and reasonable price for most students. We know that most students need service, but they do not have enough resources. We, therefore, offer quality service that you can afford.

    Benefits of using custom research paper writing service

    If this is your first time considering using a custom writing service, the first thing is to know why taking such an action is the best. Choosing Thecustomwriting.com ensures professional writers handle your paper. Letting a qualified person handle your project can boost your grade. You cannot afford to fail in the upcoming end-of-semester project. In any case, your progress to the next level will be determined by how well you perform in your essay.

    Thecustomwriting.com ensures the timely delivery of your work. The good thing about legit essay writers is that they can write your essay within the shortest time possible, with one page taking up to one hour at most. It doesn't matter what time you want your work done: Thecustomwriting.com is always ready for a task.

    We will give you a paper written explicitly for you. We will ensure that your paper is not delivered to someone else.

    Come to think of this; if five of your classmates decide to order an essay for the same class, five writers will be assigned to work on different papers instead of paraphrasing one paper and sending it to five of you.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Do subject specialist writers handle my research paper?

    It's our responsibility to ensure that someone from your field handles your paper. Our company has enough writers from every discipline. We provide only a research writer qualified in your subject to handle your paper. After placing an order, the first step is to screen the question and requirement and match it with the best writer. The less qualified writer has a college diploma, and they only handle high school papers. All other writers are bachelor, masters, and PhD degree holders.

    Are your researchers qualified enough to know the core of the research?

    We commit to quality content. We understand that failure to deliver quality service will result in the loss of clients. Therefore, we only hire qualified writers who have an in-depth understanding of your paper. Whether you want quantitative research done using Chi-square or qualitative research, Thecustomwriting.com’s writers will comfortably handle any discipline or type of paper. Besides, we offer research paper service from college to PhD. Therefore, we cannot afford to have unqualified writers. Our researchers take every instruction keenly when writing your essay.

    Should I worry about order placement?

    There is nothing to worry about placing your order. Our platform has a simple, user-friendly interface that enables you to navigate to different functionalities with ease. We offer quality custom research paper writing services; thus, you don't have to worry about getting value for your money. Besides, you can track your order's progress. Our system progressively send you email notifications regarding every stage of your orders' progress; thus, you don't even have to log in to track down your order. You will also see the progress on the dashboard when you log in. Moreover, our support team will contact you when the writer needs any clarification.

    Can I have direct communication with the writer after the order placement?

    Our system is designed in such a way that it allows you to communicate with your writer directly. We understand the need to clarify things yourself to the writer. Furthermore, our support team is available 24 hours to ensure that urgent matters are communicated swiftly with the writer.

    Will I get any discount on recommendation?

    The answer is yes. We value your efforts and trust to recommend us to your friends. We will offer you a discount on your next order if a client mentions your email when placing an order.

    What guarantees should customers look for?

    We have a written list of what we guarantee our clients in our terms. We guarantee the quality, confidentiality, free revision, original content, and timely delivery. We also guarantee money-back if, in the unlikely event, you are not happy with the quality of the paper.

    What makes a reliable writing company?

    It's easy to know a reputable company. First, they are transparent about their services. They offer multiple methods of communication and have qualified writers. Most importantly, they deliver your work on time, deliver original content, and honour what they have guaranteed.

    Why should customers not opt for cheap essay writing services?

    Cheap essay services will only waste your time. They have foreign writers who will produce plagiarized content full of grammar errors. You will waste your precious time waiting for a paper that you can't give your lecturer.

    Is buying essays online safe?

    It's safe to buy your essay if you take the right precaution. Before putting your money on a strange site, explore the website to see whether you will get customer reviews. They will help you make the right decision.

    How do I hire someone to write an essay for me?

    These are common questions with most clients. It's effortless to get a professional writer. The first step is to identify a custom research paper writing service that is legit and sign up. After that, they will guide you on how to place your order and get a writer. Some companies will allow you to choose a writer for yourself or choose a writer for you.

    What types of writing services can I order online?

    Our website offers a variety of legit essay services. We provide any academic assistance, including research projects, assignments, and admission letters. Visit our website to see what each service entails.

    What benefits and additional features do Thecustomwriting.com services offer?

    We offer several free services to our customers. We offer free revision, a discount on your first order, and free pages such as references and cover pages. Also, we have a quality control department that ensures that all papers are of high quality before delivering them to you.

    Do websites maintain your privacy? Are orders secured?

    Your privacy is our top priority. You will be recognized by your I.D. assigned to you after signup instead of your name. The only person who can access your account is you or anyone else you give your password. Your payment is through a third party. Therefore, your personal information will never reach our site without your consent.

    What are the pros of ordering from custom writing services?

    You get quality papers. We have writers with decades of experience delivering quality papers worth the client's money and much more. We understand your power to influence our progress. Your paper will be delivered on time and written by professional writers.

    Hire a professional writer

    Now that you know what to look for when considering the custom research paper writing services, it's time to try us. Sign up and get a discount on your first order. You don't have to worry about quality, timely delivery, and price. We know they are essential to you. Use promo code ‘2021’ and claim a 15% discount on your first order.

    Place your order
    (550 words)

    Approximate price: $22

    Calculate the price of your order

    550 words
    We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
    Total price:
    $26
    The price is based on these factors:
    Academic level
    Number of pages
    Urgency
    Basic features
    • Free title page and bibliography
    • Unlimited revisions
    • Plagiarism-free guarantee
    • Money-back guarantee
    • 24/7 support
    On-demand options
    • Writer’s samples
    • Part-by-part delivery
    • Overnight delivery
    • Copies of used sources
    • Expert Proofreading
    Paper format
    • 275 words per page
    • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
    • Double line spacing
    • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

    Our guarantees

    Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
    That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

    Money-back guarantee

    You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

    Read more

    Zero-plagiarism guarantee

    Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

    Read more

    Free-revision policy

    Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

    Read more

    Privacy policy

    Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

    Read more

    Fair-cooperation guarantee

    By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

    Read more