The main concern relating to the entry of into the United States relates to the belief that they adversely affect the labor market for the citizens. Immigrants create competition for the scarce job opportunities denying the citizens the right to enjoy the available employment vacancies and cause wage depression. The impact of immigrants is significantly experienced in California’s agricultural sector because the State has one of the largest agricultural labor markets in the U.S., accounting for about 36 percent of farmworkers. A report dubbed Migrant and Seasonal Enumeration Study published by the Bureau of Primary Care’s Migrant Health Program indicate that there are about 1.1 million seasonal farm laborers working in the agriculture sector in California agriculture, 440,000 of whom are employed year-round. As a result, only about 40 per cent of farmworkers work throughout the year. The entry of immigrants into the state’s agricultural sector has elicited different views, some supporting their involvement in the sector while others believe that they are adversely affecting it.
In my research, I established that the entry of immigrants into California affected vegetable agriculture. The immigrants have caused the displacement of the citizens in vegetable production agriculture and have also instigated the reduction of wages in the sector. Vegetable production is labor intensive, and about 95 percent of the farmworkers in this agriculture are immigrants (Devadoss and Luckstead 891). The displacements and reduction of wages have been great concerns among the host population. However, these concerns are not valid because the entry of one new immigrant into vegetable farming displaces only 0.0123 domestic workers, and the reduction in wages is inconsequential (Devadoss and Luckstead 889). The entry of immigrants into the agriculture is beneficial to the sector and the State because one immigrant worker increases the vegetable production by over $23,457 and increases the productivity of skilled workers, material inputs, and capital by more than $11,729 (Devadoss and Luckstead 889). They believe that there is a need for immigrants in the sector because the adoption of labor-saving technologies and reduced acreage in vegetable farming in California does not minimize the demand for low-skilled labor since the trends in the sector have continually shifted to labor-intensive crops (Devadoss and Luckstead 880). For instance, there has been an increased focus in vegetable crops more than other crop varieties over the past 30 years (Devadoss and Luckstead 880). Also, there has been an expansion of vegetable cultivation to year-round, resulting in an increased demand for low-skilled labor.
Studies have also shown that the entry of immigrants into California and their involvement in the State’s agriculture has not adversely affected wages. Workers’ earnings in California’s agricultural sector has increased normally over the years despite the ever-rising number of immigrants joining the sector’s labor market (Martin Hooker, and Stockton n.d.). For instance, the average employment of hired laborers in California agriculture rose by more than 10 percent between 2005 and 2015. Research reveals that during the period, about 16,400 agricultural entities employed an average of 421,300 employees who earned a total of $12.8 billion. The total payment given to the workers accounted for 27 percent of the state’s $47 billion in agricultural earnings (Martin Hooker, and Stockton n.d.). For this reason, a full-time equivalent worker would be paid about $30,300, suggesting a wage of $14.55 per hour for 2,080 working hours. The average annual wage earned by the 848,000 employees who had at least one job on California’s agricultural farms was about $20,500 in 2015. This pay was two-thirds of the average annual wage of a full-time equivalent worker, signifying a combination of lower earnings and less than full-year work.
The growing number of immigrants in California’s agriculture has caused earning inequalities among U.S. citizens and immigrant farmworkers. From the information presented by the US Department of Labor’s National Agricultural Worker Survey (NAWS), there are differences in earnings among farmworkers in the U.S. based on a variety of characteristics (Bowers and Chand 182). Some of these characteristics include gender and age. From the contents of the report, females and workers under 21 are consistently earning less compared to other categories of farmworkers (Bowers and Chand 183). Moreover, workers who are involved in seasonally grown crops are some of the lowest paid farmworkers (Bowers and Chand 183). Workers lacking authorized status are also paid less compared to those who have legal status (Bowers and Chand 182). Interestingly, however, foreign-born US citizens are paid more than their US-born colleagues. On the other hand, migrant workers earn considerably less compared to all other groups. Among immigrant workers, those who move from one state to another working on various crops as seasons change are paid the least (Bowers and Chand 183). Based on these revelations, I conclude that the entry of immigrants has benefitted employers in California’s agricultural sector with cheap labor. However, labor from immigrants has not affected the wages earned by native workers in the sector.
I learned that the entry of immigrants into California’s agriculture caused minimal or no effect on wages in the sector. There are two broad results arising from the immigrants’ participation in agriculture (Brauw 474). Studies undertaken using Borjas’ methods reveal that the wage elasticity of immigration is less than 0.2 instead of less than 0.3 to less than 0.4. Borjas’s assumption of perfect worker substitutability in cells cannot be accurate because the wages of male and female employees increased as women joined the workforce between 1960 and 2010 (Brauw 475). For these reasons, empirical methods that combine the two assumptions he considered are likely to more accurately reveal the effects of immigration on the wages of natives and that are either very minimal or zero.
There is also evidence that the entry of immigrants into the U.S. agricultural sector has not affected the sector in terms of wages, especially since there are labor protections that have been enacted at the federal and state levels. The laws ensure a standard of working and living laborers, irrespective of whether they are citizens or immigrants (Rodman, Barry, Clayton, Frattaroli, Neff, and Rutkow 102). Nevertheless, despite the enactment of many protections, farmworkers have been granted fewer rights compared to workers in other industries (Rodman et al. 105). The U.S. states have varying legislation and regulations for minimum wage, overtime payments, rest, and meal periods (Rodman et al. 97). California has legislation touching on all these issues (Rodman et al. 103). For instance, California has overtime protections for workers employed in farms, though they have slighter protections compared to those given to workers in other sectors.
From these secondary sources, I learned that there is disagreement on whether the entry of immigrants into California’s agriculture affected wages in the sector. Some researchers argue that their entry displaced locals in the sectors’ employment and led to reduced wages. However, others believe that the entry of these people has not impacted the sector since there is a growing demand for labor. In other studies, the wages in the sector has increased normally despite the entry of the foreigners, an indication that they do not affect the industry. Still, there are some people who believe that foreigners have caused an insignificant impact on California’s agriculture. The variance in views display that this topic will remain a contentious issue, therefore, it should be studied in detail.
Bowers Marianne L. and Chand Daniel E. “An examination of wage and income inequality within the American farmworker community” Sage Journals, vol. 6, no. 3, 2018.
Devadoss Stephen and Luckstead Jeff “Contributions of immigrant farmworkers to California vegetable production,” Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, vol. 40, no. 3, 2008, pp. 879–894.11.
Martin Philip L., Hooker Brandon, and Stockton, Marc, “Employment and earnings of California farmworkers in 2015,” California Agriculture, vol. 72, no. 2, 2017, pp. 107-113.
Rodman Sarah O., Barry Colleen L., Clayton Megan L., Frattaroli Shannon, Neff Roni A., and Rutkow Lainie, Agricultural exceptionalism at the state level: Characterization of wage and hour laws for U.S. farmworkers, Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, vol. 6, no. 2, 2016, pp. 89–110.
Tired of Guidelines or Lack Time to Work on Your Paper, Get Original Custom Research Paper Writing Service
Thecustomwriting.com research paper writing service has saved thousands of students from stressful college life. Writing a custom research paper may be challenging, considering it has to be plagiarism-free. And it is better not to do your project than to hand in plagiarized work or hurriedly complete it if you do not have time.
Academic integrity is so vital that you may get a suspension or an expulsion because of a copy-pasted work. Writing a custom research paper requires research and writing skills to produce original content. Here are essential things to know about getting the best and legit assignments help websites.
Perfection is vital
Every website will promise you that they produce high-quality work. However, you put your money for your end-of-semester paper only to get a pass. You must learn how to identify the best writing service before committing.
Thecustomwriting.com produces quality content at all times. Rather than a quality promise, quality assurance is what you should consider before hiring a research writer. Best writing services are reliable. You don't want to partner with a cheap research paper writing service that will deliver poorly written essays hours after the due date.
Quality writers are part of the best writing service. A company that has untrained writers will fail you. Before committing, ensure that the people who will write your paper are academicians and professionals. It would help if you had a writer who will be prompt to respond to your questions and follow instructions. Writers who do not fear to ask for clarification where they don't understand are the best for you.
Beware of Scammers Posing to Provide Custom Research Paper Writing Service
It may take time and effort to find a legit custom research paper writing service. Most of the websites claiming to offer writing service trades your paper with another student. For example, if you order your paper today to submit it next week, you may find that another student has already handed over the same document.
Your money is gone, you have no paper to submit, and the deadline is in two hours. You can only sit and cook up some stories for your lecturer. Otherwise, wait for a penalty or suspension.
Others will give you half-baked papers in the name of cheap essays. Apart from reselling your paper, some companies will offer you copy-pasted work. If you don't have tools such as Turnitin or Copyscape to check plagiarism, you may find yourself in the dean's office explaining why you copied your work from the internet word-to-word.
We offer one of the best research paper writing services in the USA and the U.K.
You won’t regret choosing Thecustomwriting.com to handle your research. Your project is an essential part of your academic work. It determines whether you will move on to the next semester or if your name will appear on the graduation list. Do not gamble your education by hiring any cheap essay writing website you find on the internet. Look for a custom research paper writing service reviews before commit.
Avoid scandals by hiring Thecustomwriting.com. Count yourself lucky if you are reading this article. You are in the right direction in finding the writing service for your paper. Though many websites could have frustrated you, Thecustomwriting.com is committed to providing you with reliable service for your paper.
Thecustomwriting.com offers quality services at affordable prices, and they deliver your work on time. They have native English writers that write your paper using the correct language.
Plagiarism Free Custom Research Paper Writing Service
Our writers understand the seriousness of writing plagiarized papers. Every institution has regulations that govern how a research project is conducted. Universities and colleges take plagiarism as gross misconduct. The best writing services are those that will deliver plagiarism-free papers.
Plagiarism involves, among others, copying a published work and delivering it to your lecturer as your own without acknowledging the sources.
Another way your work can be plagiarized is the failure to include the source of your content in a research paper. If you are using someone's thought, you need to include a reference and in-text citations to show that you are using another scholars' worker.
It's a gross mistake to write a five-page paper without a single source unless the paper's nature does not require you to rely on any sources. Here are some tips our writers use to avoid accidental plagiarism:
Cite direct quotes, statistics, and paraphrased content.
Ensure that all in-text citations are included in the biography and vice versa.
Directly quoting not more than 2% of the paper, if quoting is necessary (some papers are exempted from this rule, especially literature).
Stick to high authority, scholarly sources. Our writers will hardly paraphrase content from third party blogs and other questionable sites.
Consider Buying A Custom Research Paper from Thecustomwriting.Com
Consider hiring an expert essay writer if you are not sure about your capabilities. Referencing and citations can be challenging, especially if you try to do it for the first time. It's even harder when your lecturer asks you to use a hard referencing style. For example, Harvard requires you to include page numbers, dates, and the author's name in the text. If you have several papers with a strict deadline, you should consider hiring a custom research paper writing service to help you work on your essays.
However, ensure the website you want to hire offers legit writing service. A good website should at least charge for its services. You will find many websites willing to provide you with free services. No one is that idle to sit and write a paper for free. Sites that provide free or cheap services hooks you when you least expect.
Also, consider the price of writing a paper. Though cheap essays are of low quality, other sites may have inflated prices for their rate, making you needlessly break your bank.
Thecustomwriting.com understands the need for a fair and reasonable price for most students. We know that most students need service, but they do not have enough resources. We, therefore, offer quality service that you can afford.
Benefits of using custom research paper writing service
If this is your first time considering using a custom writing service, the first thing is to know why taking such an action is the best. Choosing Thecustomwriting.com ensures professional writers handle your paper. Letting a qualified person handle your project can boost your grade. You cannot afford to fail in the upcoming end-of-semester project. In any case, your progress to the next level will be determined by how well you perform in your essay.
Thecustomwriting.com ensures the timely delivery of your work. The good thing about legit essay writers is that they can write your essay within the shortest time possible, with one page taking up to one hour at most. It doesn't matter what time you want your work done: Thecustomwriting.com is always ready for a task.
We will give you a paper written explicitly for you. We will ensure that your paper is not delivered to someone else.
Come to think of this; if five of your classmates decide to order an essay for the same class, five writers will be assigned to work on different papers instead of paraphrasing one paper and sending it to five of you.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
It's our responsibility to ensure that someone from your field handles your paper. Our company has enough writers from every discipline. We provide only a research writer qualified in your subject to handle your paper. After placing an order, the first step is to screen the question and requirement and match it with the best writer. The less qualified writer has a college diploma, and they only handle high school papers. All other writers are bachelor, masters, and PhD degree holders.
We commit to quality content. We understand that failure to deliver quality service will result in the loss of clients. Therefore, we only hire qualified writers who have an in-depth understanding of your paper. Whether you want quantitative research done using Chi-square or qualitative research, Thecustomwriting.com’s writers will comfortably handle any discipline or type of paper. Besides, we offer research paper service from college to PhD. Therefore, we cannot afford to have unqualified writers. Our researchers take every instruction keenly when writing your essay.
There is nothing to worry about placing your order. Our platform has a simple, user-friendly interface that enables you to navigate to different functionalities with ease. We offer quality custom research paper writing services; thus, you don't have to worry about getting value for your money. Besides, you can track your order's progress. Our system progressively send you email notifications regarding every stage of your orders' progress; thus, you don't even have to log in to track down your order. You will also see the progress on the dashboard when you log in. Moreover, our support team will contact you when the writer needs any clarification.
Our system is designed in such a way that it allows you to communicate with your writer directly. We understand the need to clarify things yourself to the writer. Furthermore, our support team is available 24 hours to ensure that urgent matters are communicated swiftly with the writer.
The answer is yes. We value your efforts and trust to recommend us to your friends. We will offer you a discount on your next order if a client mentions your email when placing an order.
What guarantees should customers look for?
We have a written list of what we guarantee our clients in our terms. We guarantee the quality, confidentiality, free revision, original content, and timely delivery. We also guarantee money-back if, in the unlikely event, you are not happy with the quality of the paper.
What makes a reliable writing company?
It's easy to know a reputable company. First, they are transparent about their services. They offer multiple methods of communication and have qualified writers. Most importantly, they deliver your work on time, deliver original content, and honour what they have guaranteed.
Why should customers not opt for cheap essay writing services?
Cheap essay services will only waste your time. They have foreign writers who will produce plagiarized content full of grammar errors. You will waste your precious time waiting for a paper that you can't give your lecturer.
Is buying essays online safe?
It's safe to buy your essay if you take the right precaution. Before putting your money on a strange site, explore the website to see whether you will get customer reviews. They will help you make the right decision.
How do I hire someone to write an essay for me?
These are common questions with most clients. It's effortless to get a professional writer. The first step is to identify a custom research paper writing service that is legit and sign up. After that, they will guide you on how to place your order and get a writer. Some companies will allow you to choose a writer for yourself or choose a writer for you.
What types of writing services can I order online?
Our website offers a variety of legit essay services. We provide any academic assistance, including research projects, assignments, and admission letters. Visit our website to see what each service entails.
What benefits and additional features do Thecustomwriting.com services offer?
We offer several free services to our customers. We offer free revision, a discount on your first order, and free pages such as references and cover pages. Also, we have a quality control department that ensures that all papers are of high quality before delivering them to you.
Do websites maintain your privacy? Are orders secured?
Your privacy is our top priority. You will be recognized by your I.D. assigned to you after signup instead of your name. The only person who can access your account is you or anyone else you give your password. Your payment is through a third party. Therefore, your personal information will never reach our site without your consent.
What are the pros of ordering from custom writing services?
You get quality papers. We have writers with decades of experience delivering quality papers worth the client's money and much more. We understand your power to influence our progress. Your paper will be delivered on time and written by professional writers.
Hire a professional writer
Now that you know what to look for when considering the custom research paper writing services, it's time to try us. Sign up and get a discount on your first order. You don't have to worry about quality, timely delivery, and price. We know they are essential to you.
Use promo code ‘2021
’ and claim a 15% discount on your first order.