Negative and Adverse Effects of G.I. Bill for the African American Veterans

Negative and Adverse Effects of G.I. Bill for the African American Veterans

Negative and Adverse Effects of G.I. Bill for the African American Veterans


The main purpose of this paper is to create an annotated bibliography consisting of ten (10) research sources on the adverse effects of the bill in relation to the African Americans. The annotated bibliography is meant to accomplish the value of these sources to my research topic. In summarizing the sources, I will be able to speculate on reliability and relevance of each article to the research topic. Also, while describing the focus of each source, I will be identifying the usefulness of each article as I categorize possible targeted audience.    

Elliott, Marta. “Predicting Problems on Campus: An Analysis of College Student             Veterans”. Analyses Of Social Issues And Public Policy, vol 15, no. 1, 2014, pp. 105-   126. Wiley, doi:10.1111/asap.12066.   

The article’s focus is on the problematic issues facing veterans pursuing a college education. The author predicts the risk of the veterans’ negative experiences while on campus. It is particularly useful in my research because of its focus on the problems faced by veterans receiving the GI Bill benefits. The author examines mental issues affecting veterans as they undertake college courses, and recommends possible solutions to include use of therapy sessions targeted at the student veterans. Although the study does not focus on African Americans, the analysis is still useful because some of the difficulties realized in the article encompass all veterans undertaking college courses.

Jenner, Brandy M. “Student Veterans and the Transition to Higher Education:         Integrating Existing Literatures.” Journal of Veterans Studies, vol 2, no. 2, 2017, p.            26. Virginia Tech Libraries, doi:10.21061/jvs.14.  

The article is valuable to my research due to its synthesis on the transitional processes student veterans experience as they seek higher education. Jenner hints on the post-secondary experiences these student veterans go through. He goes further to give an account of how black Americans are struggling to access the GI Bill. The journal is relevant to my topic because it mentions the underrepresentation of minority students in such colleges. The study’s methodology integrates existing research and literature to conduct informed research based on the policy-makers of the GI Bill.      

McCardle, Todd. “A Promise Deferred: Black Veterans’ Access to Higher Education           Through the GI Bill at the University of Florida, 1944–1962.” Educational Studies,        vol. 53, no. 2, Mar. 2017, pp. 122–134. EBSCOhost,     doi:10.1080/00131946.2017.1283504.   

The author examines and compares the GI Bill to origins of desegregation of the HBCU (Historically Black Colleges and Universities). He argues that both the GI Bill and the HBCUs are supposed to work together to bridge the underrepresentation of the African American veterans. He explains how the adverse consequences of the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act on African Americans are based on solutions. The report also mentions the limited options African American compared to the white majority. The article’s argument has been developed by recounting the story of two black veterans who attended the University of Florida. Even though the use of only two veterans is a limitation on the researchers’ part, the viewpoints of the duo give a close and personal experience of African Americans as they try to access the GI Bill benefits.

Norman, Sonya B. et al. “Student Veteran Perceptions Of Facilitators And Barriers To        Achieving Academic Goals.” Rehab.Research.Va, 2019, p.103

The study examines the GI Bill effectiveness from the perspective of a veteran. The authors used interview data as their methodology to help in understanding the veterans’ views on barriers and facilitators to achieve social and academic goals. The article tackles three themes, namely: institutional structures, policy concerns, and emerging facilitators and barriers. The scholars applied various institutional structures such as school departments and the office of veterans’ affairs. Moreover, the study’s focus on policy concerns such as the bill’s effects on student veterans helps in determining possible solutions on ways of dealing with the GI Bill, particularly for the African Americans.

Ottley, Alford H. “Empty Promise: Black American Veterans And The New GI Bill.” New Directions For Adult And Continuing Education, vol 2014, no. 144, 2014, pp. 79-    88. Wiley, doi:10.1002/ace.20116.   

This article focuses on the GI Bill after the 9/11 in terms of how the benefits have evolved since the sad event. The article helps determine the treatment of African Americans who served since 2001, September 11. The author questions why African Americans were denied full access to these GI educational benefits in comparison to their white counterparts.  He also attempts to find out if there were social barriers to GI Bill.

Thomas, Megan D. “WWII GI Bill And Its Effect On Low Education Levels: Did The          World War II GI Bill Have An Effect On High School Completion, Poverty, And   Employment?”. Education Finance and Policy, vol 12, no. 4, 2017, pp. 492-515. MIT            Press – Journals, doi:10.1162/edfp_a_00211.   

The author queries whether the Readjustment Act helped in increasing the likelihood of the veterans completing their high school education. Although the study is generalized towards entire America, the author still mentions power and unemployment rates from a racial viewpoint. The article helps me determine the effects the GI Bill on African Americans, thus establishing the bill’s negative effects on colored veterans. Its methodology uses the Census from 1970 in carrying out research.

Torpey, John, and Maxine Burkett. “The Debate Over African American Reparations.”      Annual Review Of Law And Social Science, vol 6, no. 1, 2010, pp. 449-467. Annual       Reviews, doi:10.1146/annurev-lawsocsci-102209-152901. Accessible at

The authors offer an overview of reparations debate whereby African Americans are facing challenges accessing the GI Bill benefits. The article sheds light on the effects of the Servicemen’s Act on black war veterans because it talks about different issues affecting the minority race in America alongside the debate on reparations. The authors do not shy from examining and mentioning different underlying reasons for stressing peculiarities of the country’s culture. The source effectively underscores the possible solutions to the challenges facing black Americans.   

Vable, Anusha M., et al. “Are There Spillover Effects from the GI Bill? The Mental Health             of Wives of Korean War Veterans.” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 5, May 2016, pp. 1–13.        EBSCOhost, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154203.  

The article examines economic spillovers of the GI Bill by studying the wives of Korean veterans. The study’s methodology uses data collected from the Health and Retirement Study database. The study’s results showed lack of evidence on relationship between the Korean wives and their husband’s eligibility to the GI Bill; however, the data had effective results on mental issues affecting the participants. The authors established mental health issues that affected the Korean wives, which can be comparable to African Americans, mentioned in the other sources.

Even though the study does not mention African Americans, the source offers an outside outlook and viewpoint on the topic.

Westheider, James. “Failing Our Veterans: The GI Bill and The Vietnam Generation By     Mark Boulton.” Register Of The Kentucky Historical Society, vol. 113, no. 4, 2015,     pp. 778-780. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/khs.2015.0080.  

The author explores some of the historical roots of failed GI Bill benefits. The article further examines forms of compensations applicable to war veterans alongside critical issues affecting their social and economic struggles. The methodology uses data from the Cold War and the Vietnam era. The author argues that rekindling the GI Bill debate can help redefine the meaning of being an American citizen. The target audience includes scholars trying to understand the effects of neglected war heroes.

Woods, Louis Lee. “Almost “No Negro Veteran … Could Get A Loan”: African        Americans, The Gi Bill, And The Naacp Campaign Against Residential Segregation,          1917–1960”. The Journal Of African American History, vol 98, no. 3, 2013, pp. 392-     417. University Of Chicago Press, doi:10.5323/jafriamerhist.98.3.0392.   

The article focuses on GI Bill loan benefits to African American veterans. The author’s focus is on how the GI Bill managed to create and extend the modern middle class. The scholar gives credit to the GI Bill as the leading cause of a bourgeoned middle class in America. At the same time, the article talks about the consequences of the racial discrimination regarding wealth gap, which is due to the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act. The target audience includes scholars interested in wealth gaps. Unlike the other sources, this journal brings up the aspect of economic consequences of the Servicemen’s Act. 


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