fbpx

Opioid Crisis

Opioid Crisis

Opioid Crisis

The United States is facing an overwhelming opioid crisis. Millions of Americans are suffering from its addiction, and a large percentage of death from drug overdose is associated with Opioid addiction. The Opioid epidemic has a devastating impact not just to individuals, families, and the community, but it is also dragging the economy as well as annihilating national security. Fortunately, in recent years, the U.S. government has developed numerous interventions to cut both foreign and local supply of Opioids while limiting the number of prescriptions in the country. Current government administration has increased its budget allocated towards this crisis. However, despite such allocation, addiction experts believe that the epidemic is not showing anysigns of slowing down. This paper aim is to examine how the federal government is tackling the opioid crisis in the United States, and why current interventions from the federal, state and local government are not working. In order to address the opioid crisis, the current interventions must be scaled by combined efforts from all stakeholders to improve the quality of life of million Americans throughout the country.

The Opioid epidemic has evolved, starting with the increased use of prescription to treat chronic pain. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initially offered a guideline to maximize pain treatment option. Part of this recommendation was the use of non-opioid medication. While CDC was not the cause of the epidemic, this recommendation prompted the first wave of the outbreak in the 1990s (Bipartisan Policy Center- BPC 7). At the time, deaths related to opioid started to rise after a steep increase in opioid-combined medications used to treat pain (Dasgupta et al. 183). The second wave of the crisis started in 2010 when there was a rapid increase in death related to heroin abuse. Dasgupta et al. attributed this transformation to rising dependency and tolerance of users (184). The third phase of the crisis began in 2013, a period associated with the rapid acceleration of the epidemic. According to Jones et al., between 2013 and 2016, death attributed to fentanyl analog increased by more than 540% nationwide (15). Such an increase in the used of Opioid prompted the present administration to declare the Opioid crisis a public health emergency.

Initially, when the epidemic emerged, the primary intervention from the federal government was to deter new users, especially those who were at risk of using Opioid. Precisely, the development of new abuse deterrence method by the FDA was created, and new public standards for pain treatment were created at the Joint Commission (Jones et al. 17). In addition, efforts to develop and offer medications to treat dependence began. Among the new policies was the re-examination of the risk-benefit model with a more strict emphasis of the ramification. Before 2002, Opioid addition was receptive to treatment, and there were numerous effective treatments (Dasgupta et al. 186). Since the epidemic was declared a public health emergency, the government has worked with Health Care institutions to improve medically-assisted treatments and improve access to different treatment options for Opioid. Besides, the federal government promoted the safety of Opioid prescriptions through prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) (Jones et al. 18). Other approaches used include increasing collaboration with law enforcement to deter those with a high risk of using Opioid. For instance, in 2015, discussions were held between China and Mexico to stop the flow of illicit fentanyl product, and the federal government pledged to prevent the flow using law enforcement programs (BPC 9). Despite these actions, ending this epidemic or reducing the rate seems impossible. 

President Trump administration has taken decisive steps aimed to combat the current opioid crisis more than any previous administration. In 2017, the presidential commission on combating Opioid crisis was developed (BPC 9). The commission aimed to analyze federal programs designed to reduce the crisis. It analyzed federal programs to determine how they could be used to curb the epidemic. The president also directed the Department of Health and Human service (HHS) and other federal governments to assist states in identifying the source of funding to address the Opioid epidemic (BPC 10). At the first wave of Opioid epidemic, the primary intervention was prevention and public awareness aimed to deter users from addiction. At the second wave, President Obama’s administration focused on awareness campaign combined with the improvement of treatment programs.

 Trump’s administration has invested more on treatment to reduce the harm of the epidemic compared to previous governments. For example, his administration has increased the federal funding of Opioid epidemic by more than $4 billion in FY 2018 from $3.3 billion to $7.4 billion in FY2018 (BPC 12). In 2017, the government proposed 10 billion in new funding allocated to the HHS, which amounts to $13 billion in new funding aimed to combat the epidemic. Federal financing across the country also doubled from $10 per capita in 2017 to more than $23 per capita (BPC 16). A large portion of the allocated fund is focused on treatment, recovery, research, and supply reduction efforts. Funding specifically targeted to treatment and recovery increased by $ 1.5 billion (BPC 13). With the available funding, the HHS and the commission established by Trump administration have announced effort to curt Opioid epidemic. Some of the most recent vigorous actions involve curbing the illegal supply of Opioid supply. Unlike other administrations in the past, Trump seemed to focus more on treatment than prevention and public awareness.

Funding dedicated to curbing opioid epidemic is allocated to the federal government who then distribute the resources to various agencies across the government. The most significant portion of the funding goes to the HHS and substance abuse and mental health service administration (SAMHSA). Federal appropriation is distributed to more than 57 federal programs aimed to address the opioid epidemic (BPC, 12). In turn, these federal programs distributed the fund to various States; they allocate fund based on the need of the state or local municipalities. For instance, SOR grant from SAMHSA was allocated more than $142 million, primarily allocated to States with the highest mortality rates associated with the Opioid addiction and drug-poisoning deaths (BPC 16). Grant increased in states with increasing rates of addiction and mortality rates. Particularly, Grant allocated to West Virginia was increased from $13 to $40 per capita (BPC, 16). Similarly, federal appropriation aimed to address the epidemic is based on the programs that address treatment more than those focused on prevention. Thereby, SAMHSA received more than $3.6 compared to CDC, which focuses on prevention of Opioid (BPC 12). Funding across the states also goes to the most affected population.

The federal government uses per capita and the mortality rates when appropriating the funding to different programs. The output data from the program is used to evaluate the success of an initiative. Also, since pharmacies can monitor the history of patients and detect the abuse of Opioid drug, the government also used the data from the health care to determine if the initiative is successful. Data collected from the health system is vital given that, presently, more data around social determinant of health are collected. These social determined are outside the health care system but often drive addiction. Recent statistics indicate that although the government has made a commendable effort in combating this epidemic, there is no apparent sign that the crisis is slowing down. Precisely, recent data from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration indicates that only one in ten people with Opioid used disorder seek treatment (140). As such, given that the current strategy is focused on treatment, the initiative is not working.  

Notably, the health care system and other institutions such as the justice department are not prepared to meet the increased demands that result from Opioid crisis. Therefore, additional funding is needed to combat the Opioid crisis effectively. However, the scale of this epidemic today requires government involvement combined with efforts from all stakeholders. State official and local officials are increasingly serving as integrators in current intervention strategies; they understand the situation in their jurisdictions. As such, the government needs to collaborate with these officials and explore a better way of handling this epidemic. The success does not only depend on the effective intervention from the government but also on the intercession of other areas. A strong correlation exists between addiction and economic distress, and as such, additional funding and coordinated effort from all stakeholders is needed in order to handle the current epidemic. CDC plays an important role when a crisis is declared; however, the current allocation of funds does not seem to focus on CDC. As such, the prevention of Opioid is not a focus on various programs. Thus, CDC, HHS, and other federal departments need to work together to address this crisis.

Works Cited

Bipartisan Policy Center- BPC, “Tracking Federal Funding to Combat the Opioid Crisis.” March 26, 2019. https://bipartisanpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Tracking-Federal-Funding-to-Combat-the-Opioid-Crisis.pdf

Dasgupta, Nabarun et al. “Opioid Crisis: No Easy Fix to Its Social and Economic Determinants.” American Journal of Public Health vol. 108,2 (2018): 182-186. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304187

Jones, Mark R et al. “A Brief History of the Opioid Epidemic and Strategies for Pain Medicine.” Pain and Therapy vol. 7,1 (2018): 13-21. doi:10.1007/s40122-018-0097-6

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. “Facing addiction in America: The surgeon general’s report on alcohol, drugs, and health.” US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK424859/

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tired of Guidelines or Lack Time to Work on Your Paper, Get Original Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Thecustomwriting.com research paper writing service has saved thousands of students from stressful college life. Writing a custom research paper may be challenging, considering it has to be plagiarism-free. And it is better not to do your project than to hand in plagiarized work or hurriedly complete it if you do not have time.

Academic integrity is so vital that you may get a suspension or an expulsion because of a copy-pasted work. Writing a custom research paper requires research and writing skills to produce original content. Here are essential things to know about getting the best and legit assignments help websites.

Perfection is vital

Every website will promise you that they produce high-quality work. However, you put your money for your end-of-semester paper only to get a pass. You must learn how to identify the best writing service before committing.

Thecustomwriting.com produces quality content at all times. Rather than a quality promise, quality assurance is what you should consider before hiring a research writer. Best writing services are reliable. You don't want to partner with a cheap research paper writing service that will deliver poorly written essays hours after the due date.

Quality writers are part of the best writing service. A company that has untrained writers will fail you. Before committing, ensure that the people who will write your paper are academicians and professionals. It would help if you had a writer who will be prompt to respond to your questions and follow instructions. Writers who do not fear to ask for clarification where they don't understand are the best for you.

Beware of Scammers Posing to Provide Custom Research Paper Writing Service

It may take time and effort to find a legit custom research paper writing service. Most of the websites claiming to offer writing service trades your paper with another student. For example, if you order your paper today to submit it next week, you may find that another student has already handed over the same document.

Your money is gone, you have no paper to submit, and the deadline is in two hours. You can only sit and cook up some stories for your lecturer. Otherwise, wait for a penalty or suspension.

Others will give you half-baked papers in the name of cheap essays. Apart from reselling your paper, some companies will offer you copy-pasted work. If you don't have tools such as Turnitin or Copyscape to check plagiarism, you may find yourself in the dean's office explaining why you copied your work from the internet word-to-word.

We offer one of the best research paper writing services in the USA and the U.K.

You won’t regret choosing Thecustomwriting.com to handle your research. Your project is an essential part of your academic work. It determines whether you will move on to the next semester or if your name will appear on the graduation list. Do not gamble your education by hiring any cheap essay writing website you find on the internet. Look for a custom research paper writing service reviews before commit.

Avoid scandals by hiring Thecustomwriting.com. Count yourself lucky if you are reading this article. You are in the right direction in finding the writing service for your paper. Though many websites could have frustrated you, Thecustomwriting.com is committed to providing you with reliable service for your paper.

Thecustomwriting.com offers quality services at affordable prices, and they deliver your work on time. They have native English writers that write your paper using the correct language.

Plagiarism Free Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Our writers understand the seriousness of writing plagiarized papers. Every institution has regulations that govern how a research project is conducted. Universities and colleges take plagiarism as gross misconduct. The best writing services are those that will deliver plagiarism-free papers.

Plagiarism involves, among others, copying a published work and delivering it to your lecturer as your own without acknowledging the sources.

Another way your work can be plagiarized is the failure to include the source of your content in a research paper. If you are using someone's thought, you need to include a reference and in-text citations to show that you are using another scholars' worker.

It's a gross mistake to write a five-page paper without a single source unless the paper's nature does not require you to rely on any sources. Here are some tips our writers use to avoid accidental plagiarism:

  • Cite direct quotes, statistics, and paraphrased content.
  • Ensure that all in-text citations are included in the biography and vice versa.
  • Directly quoting not more than 2% of the paper, if quoting is necessary (some papers are exempted from this rule, especially literature).
  • Stick to high authority, scholarly sources. Our writers will hardly paraphrase content from third party blogs and other questionable sites.
  • Consider Buying A Custom Research Paper from Thecustomwriting.Com

    Consider hiring an expert essay writer if you are not sure about your capabilities. Referencing and citations can be challenging, especially if you try to do it for the first time. It's even harder when your lecturer asks you to use a hard referencing style. For example, Harvard requires you to include page numbers, dates, and the author's name in the text. If you have several papers with a strict deadline, you should consider hiring a custom research paper writing service to help you work on your essays.

    However, ensure the website you want to hire offers legit writing service. A good website should at least charge for its services. You will find many websites willing to provide you with free services. No one is that idle to sit and write a paper for free. Sites that provide free or cheap services hooks you when you least expect.

    Also, consider the price of writing a paper. Though cheap essays are of low quality, other sites may have inflated prices for their rate, making you needlessly break your bank.

    Thecustomwriting.com understands the need for a fair and reasonable price for most students. We know that most students need service, but they do not have enough resources. We, therefore, offer quality service that you can afford.

    Benefits of using custom research paper writing service

    If this is your first time considering using a custom writing service, the first thing is to know why taking such an action is the best. Choosing Thecustomwriting.com ensures professional writers handle your paper. Letting a qualified person handle your project can boost your grade. You cannot afford to fail in the upcoming end-of-semester project. In any case, your progress to the next level will be determined by how well you perform in your essay.

    Thecustomwriting.com ensures the timely delivery of your work. The good thing about legit essay writers is that they can write your essay within the shortest time possible, with one page taking up to one hour at most. It doesn't matter what time you want your work done: Thecustomwriting.com is always ready for a task.

    We will give you a paper written explicitly for you. We will ensure that your paper is not delivered to someone else.

    Come to think of this; if five of your classmates decide to order an essay for the same class, five writers will be assigned to work on different papers instead of paraphrasing one paper and sending it to five of you.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Do subject specialist writers handle my research paper?

    It's our responsibility to ensure that someone from your field handles your paper. Our company has enough writers from every discipline. We provide only a research writer qualified in your subject to handle your paper. After placing an order, the first step is to screen the question and requirement and match it with the best writer. The less qualified writer has a college diploma, and they only handle high school papers. All other writers are bachelor, masters, and PhD degree holders.

    Are your researchers qualified enough to know the core of the research?

    We commit to quality content. We understand that failure to deliver quality service will result in the loss of clients. Therefore, we only hire qualified writers who have an in-depth understanding of your paper. Whether you want quantitative research done using Chi-square or qualitative research, Thecustomwriting.com’s writers will comfortably handle any discipline or type of paper. Besides, we offer research paper service from college to PhD. Therefore, we cannot afford to have unqualified writers. Our researchers take every instruction keenly when writing your essay.

    Should I worry about order placement?

    There is nothing to worry about placing your order. Our platform has a simple, user-friendly interface that enables you to navigate to different functionalities with ease. We offer quality custom research paper writing services; thus, you don't have to worry about getting value for your money. Besides, you can track your order's progress. Our system progressively send you email notifications regarding every stage of your orders' progress; thus, you don't even have to log in to track down your order. You will also see the progress on the dashboard when you log in. Moreover, our support team will contact you when the writer needs any clarification.

    Can I have direct communication with the writer after the order placement?

    Our system is designed in such a way that it allows you to communicate with your writer directly. We understand the need to clarify things yourself to the writer. Furthermore, our support team is available 24 hours to ensure that urgent matters are communicated swiftly with the writer.

    Will I get any discount on recommendation?

    The answer is yes. We value your efforts and trust to recommend us to your friends. We will offer you a discount on your next order if a client mentions your email when placing an order.

    What guarantees should customers look for?

    We have a written list of what we guarantee our clients in our terms. We guarantee the quality, confidentiality, free revision, original content, and timely delivery. We also guarantee money-back if, in the unlikely event, you are not happy with the quality of the paper.

    What makes a reliable writing company?

    It's easy to know a reputable company. First, they are transparent about their services. They offer multiple methods of communication and have qualified writers. Most importantly, they deliver your work on time, deliver original content, and honour what they have guaranteed.

    Why should customers not opt for cheap essay writing services?

    Cheap essay services will only waste your time. They have foreign writers who will produce plagiarized content full of grammar errors. You will waste your precious time waiting for a paper that you can't give your lecturer.

    Is buying essays online safe?

    It's safe to buy your essay if you take the right precaution. Before putting your money on a strange site, explore the website to see whether you will get customer reviews. They will help you make the right decision.

    How do I hire someone to write an essay for me?

    These are common questions with most clients. It's effortless to get a professional writer. The first step is to identify a custom research paper writing service that is legit and sign up. After that, they will guide you on how to place your order and get a writer. Some companies will allow you to choose a writer for yourself or choose a writer for you.

    What types of writing services can I order online?

    Our website offers a variety of legit essay services. We provide any academic assistance, including research projects, assignments, and admission letters. Visit our website to see what each service entails.

    What benefits and additional features do Thecustomwriting.com services offer?

    We offer several free services to our customers. We offer free revision, a discount on your first order, and free pages such as references and cover pages. Also, we have a quality control department that ensures that all papers are of high quality before delivering them to you.

    Do websites maintain your privacy? Are orders secured?

    Your privacy is our top priority. You will be recognized by your I.D. assigned to you after signup instead of your name. The only person who can access your account is you or anyone else you give your password. Your payment is through a third party. Therefore, your personal information will never reach our site without your consent.

    What are the pros of ordering from custom writing services?

    You get quality papers. We have writers with decades of experience delivering quality papers worth the client's money and much more. We understand your power to influence our progress. Your paper will be delivered on time and written by professional writers.

    Hire a professional writer

    Now that you know what to look for when considering the custom research paper writing services, it's time to try us. Sign up and get a discount on your first order. You don't have to worry about quality, timely delivery, and price. We know they are essential to you. Use promo code ‘2021’ and claim a 15% discount on your first order.

    Place your order
    (550 words)

    Approximate price: $22

    Calculate the price of your order

    550 words
    We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
    Total price:
    $26
    The price is based on these factors:
    Academic level
    Number of pages
    Urgency
    Basic features
    • Free title page and bibliography
    • Unlimited revisions
    • Plagiarism-free guarantee
    • Money-back guarantee
    • 24/7 support
    On-demand options
    • Writer’s samples
    • Part-by-part delivery
    • Overnight delivery
    • Copies of used sources
    • Expert Proofreading
    Paper format
    • 275 words per page
    • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
    • Double line spacing
    • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

    Our guarantees

    Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
    That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

    Money-back guarantee

    You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

    Read more

    Zero-plagiarism guarantee

    Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

    Read more

    Free-revision policy

    Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

    Read more

    Privacy policy

    Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

    Read more

    Fair-cooperation guarantee

    By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

    Read more