Oral citations are used throughout presentations to give credit to any and all outside information
referenced. Since you are giving an oral presentation, you must orally cite your sources instead
of providing parenthetical or reference citations (since the audience won’t see those).
What to include in your oral citation:

  1. Author or source (who said or wrote the information)
  2. Publication (where the information was published; i.e. website, newspaper, journal, etc.)
  3. Date (when was this information published, updated, or last accessed)
  4. Author or source credentials (why are they a reliable source; Dr., government website,
    When to use an oral citation:
    You should orally cite information ANY time it is not your own intellectual property.
    How to use an oral citation:
    ● When citing one source one time in your speech, use individual oral citations to cite
    paraphrased, summarized, or directly quoted information from the original source. See
    examples below:
    ○ According to the official website of our nation’s health protection agency, the
    Centers for Disease Control, the last updated in 2015, (enter direct quote or
    ○ In Jose Santo’s November 2018 American Psychological Quarterly journal
    article…(enter paraphrased information)
    ○ According to PC gamer, a magazine devoted to all things gaming, in an article
    published in 2014 by Tom Jones, (enter direct quote or paraphrase)…
    ○ Elena Ruiz, a columnist for the New York Times, quoted Barack Obama, the
    President of the United States in an article published on July 11th, 2014
    stating….(enter quote)”
    ● When citing many pieces of information from a source, use a “blanket” oral citation. See
    examples below:
    ○ The following information on how to set up a gaming PC comes from Tom Jones’
    2014 PC Gamer magazine.
    ○ All information and statistics on the homeless population in Los Angeles comes
    from columnist Steve Lopez’s 2017 Los Angeles Times newspaper article, and
    the City of Los Angeles’ website page titled “Homeless,” last updated in
    November 2017.

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