Overweight and obesity are a risk factor to major non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes mellitus, colon and breast cancers and reduced life expectancy (Lee, Shiroma, Lobelo, Puska, Blair, & Katzmarzyk, 2013). Based on the World Health Organization (WHO) 2018 report, CHD is the leading cause of death in the world while diabetes mellitus is the seventh. Physical activity reduces the risks associated with the conditions and guarantees a better life (Lee et al., 2016). Therefore, a 6-week’s intervention was implemented to reduce the amount of calories intake and increase physical activity to lose at least a kilogram every week.
The Public Health Intervention report explains each component of the intervention. First, it describes the action plan of executing the intervention. Second, the report describes the methods used to track the progress of the participant. The third is describing the result followed by a reflection on the facilitators and hindrances of the strategies used. Finally, the report concludes by outlining the recommendations for improvement.
The participant needed to observe the following strategies to achieve the PHI goal:
Reduce daily calories eaten from 3500 to 1000 by switch to eating foods that are high in other nutrients and low in calories. Substituting low-quality foods with high quality ones is crucial in helping individuals consume fewer calories (Clifton, 2017).
Run in a park with an outdoor gym for 30 to 45 minutes daily and workout for the same duration three times a week. The park should be near the participant’s place of residence and should have an outdoor gym. Blundell, Gibbons, Caudwell, Finlayson, and Hopkins (2015) showed that running and other exercises increase heart- rate that helps to burn calories.
Self-reward for every 2-3 kilograms weight loss by taking a trip outside the city. Self-rewarding motivates and inspires behavior change.
Track the daily caloric intake and steps made using smartphone apps. Such apps can motivate individuals to break personal targets and gives them control over their fitness (Chin et al., 2016).
Drink 3 to 4 liters of water daily. Water helps in weight loss by facilitating metabolism stored fats and excretion of waste (Mucklelbauer et al., 2013).
The Body Mass Indices (BMIs) and the weights of the participant were measured at the start of the program to determine the baseline for setting the targets and tracking the progress of the individuals. The weights of the individuals were taken using a normal weight scale every end of the week to find out the weight loss. The individual will take his BMI measurements after the first every fortnight during the intervention period to track the changes. The participant will take the last BMI at the end of the sixth week to verify whether the PHI goal has been attained. Frequent measurement of BMI is crucial to provide the feedback on the effects of the diet and physical activity; thereby increasing the participant’s awareness of any physical changes (Steinberg, Tate, Bennett, Ennett, Samuel-Hodge, & Ward, 2013).
Table 1. Fortnight Changes in the Participant’s BMI Readings
Time of BMI Measurement
Baseline (Start of the Intervention)
End of 2nd Week
End of 4th Week
End of 6th Week
Table 1 illustrates the effects of exercise and the change in the eating habit on the participant’s BMI, which reduced from 42.2 to 41.8 to 41.1 and finally to 40.4. The above results of fortnight BMI measurements indicate that the participant has achieved the objective of the intervention.
Figure 1. Graph of Changes in Weight per Week of the Intervention
Participant of a PHI encounter both barriers and facilitators of the action plan. During this PHI, cravings for fries nearly made the participant contravene the action plan, as he once ate fries in the first week. The ubiquitous fast food restaurants can worsen the situation; in which case the participant could succumb to the lure of the aroma of fast foods emanating from them, given the many days he had avoided it. However, a registered dietitian advised the participant to substitute favorite food with low-fat versions of the same (Imanaka, Ando, Kitamura, & Kawamura, 2016). Similarly, the prevailing climate could derail the person from following the weight loss course diligently. As the participant had scheduled the PHI in winter, the contemplation of the cold weather can discourage him from stepping out and run or do other aerobic exercise, such as rope skipping at the outdoor gym. However, every time the participant felt demoralized, he would think about the reward he stands to enjoy upon achieving the set threshold – after every 2 to 3 kilograms loss. The thought of watching a movie at the theatre together with friends is worth the effort to lose weight.
Recommendation and Conclusion
Developing smart strategies for attaining dietary and weight loss goals are important. The participants should try the following three steps to achieve their PHI goals.
The participant should switch private means of transport to public ones. Taking public transportations offers many opportunities for walking, as the bus or train stations are often away from their residents and their workplaces.
Changing from drinking coffee or tea to drinking whole milk can reduce the amount of calorie intake (Beck, Heyman,Chao, Wojcicki, 2017). Besides, milk is more nutritious than tea or coffee. In addition, drinking milk prevents the intake of sugar in a cup of coffee or tea.
Take the stairs instead of the elevator to reach their workstation. Start on one floor and increase by one floor each week to make it 6 floors by the end of the intervention timeline. The strategy is effective in providing a practical daily opportunity for increasing physical activity (Hongu, Shimada, Miyake, Nakajima, Nakajima, & Yoshitake, 2019).
Substitute processed grains with whole grains. Eating whole grains reduces calories intake by inducing satiety and enhancing metabolism by providing essential vitamins and minerals, thereby promoting calorie loss (Nichols, 2017).
Blundell, J. E., Gibbons, C., Caudwell, P., Finlayson, G., & Hopkins, M. (2015). Appetite control and energy balance: impact of exercise. Obesity reviews, 16, 67-76.
Chin, S. O., Keum, C., Woo, J., Park, J., Choi, H. J., Woo, J. T., & Rhee, S. Y. (2016). Successful weight reduction and maintenance by using a smartphone application in those with overweight and obesity. Scientific reports, 6, 34563.
Hongu, N., Shimada, M., Miyake, R., Nakajima, Y., Nakajima, I., & Yoshitake, Y. (2019). Promoting stair climbing as an exercise routine among healthy older adults attending a community-based physical activity program. Sports (Basel), 7 (1), 23-35. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359596/.
Imanaka, M., Ando, M., Kitamura, T., & Kawamura, T. (2016). Impact of registered dietitian expertise in health guidance for weight loss. PloS One , 1-8. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4803206/pdf/pone.0151456.pdf.
Lee, I.-M., Shiroma, E. J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S. N., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2013). Impact of physical inactivity on the world’s major non-communicable diseases. Lancet, 219-229. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3645500/.
Mucklelbauer, R., Sarganas, G., Gruneis, A., & Muller-Nordhom, J. (2013). Association between water consumption and body weight outcom: a systematic review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98 (2), 282-299.
Rivera, J., Munoz-Hernandez, O., Rosas-Peralta, M., Aguilar-Salinas, C., Popkin, B. M., & Willett, W. (2008). Drink consumption for a healthy life: Recommendations for the general population in Mexico. Gac Med Mex, 144 (5), 369-388. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19043956
Steinberg, D. M., Tate, D. F., Bennett, G. G., Ennett, S., Samuel‐Hodge, C., & Ward, D. S. (2013). The efficacy of a daily self‐weighing weight loss intervention using smart scales and e‐mail. Obesity, 21(9), 1789-1797.
Windisch, L., & Andrade, J. (2017). The effects a traditional meal pattern vs. small frequent meals has on body composition in overweight and obese adults: A systematic review. Journal of Nutrition and Dietetic Practice, 1 (1), 1-8.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2018). The top 10 causes of death. Retrieved June 2, 2019, from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death
Wu, Y. P., McClellan, J., Kim, J., Tian, T., Grahmann, B., Kirchhoff, A., et al. (2015). Barriers and facilitators of healthy diet and exercise among adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: Implications for behavioral intervention. Journal of Adolescent Young Adults Oncology, 4 (4), 184-191. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26697268.
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