fbpx

Stand Your Ground Laws and Crime Rates in the United States

Stand Your Ground Laws and Crime Rates in the United States

Stand Your Ground Laws and Crime Rates in the United States

Literature Review

            In the last ten years, researchers have increased their focus on the effects of Stand Your Ground legislation. One area that specifically draws scholarly attention is the exploration of the effects of these policies on crime rates in the United States. However, varying results have been detected by different researchers across the scholarly divide. For instance, Humphreys, Gasparrini, and Wiebe (2017) argue that the removal of barriers on where and when people can utilize lethal force has been strongly linked to a significant increase in firearm-related homicides in the United States. Humphreys, Gasparrini, and Wiebe (2017) used interrupted time series design to assess change in the degree of homicides and deaths brought by the use of firearms after the introduction of the law in Florida. The study found that the introduction of Florida’s ‘stand your ground policy was positively related to 24 percent upsurge in homicide rates and 31 percent rise in firearm-related deaths.

            The continued utilization of lethal force as a defense mechanism is a practice backed by criminal legal systems. Humphreys, Gasparrini, and Wiebe (2017) observe that since the colonial regime, individuals have been given the ‘duty to retreat’ from the imminent threats before seeking the application of force. However, when force cannot be averted for self-defense, individuals should demonstrate that efforts have been made to retreat first. To this end, the ‘castle doctrine’ is an exception, providing people who meet threats in their own areas of residence immunity with respect to the application of lethal force. Many states in the United States have introduced amendments to their self-defense policies, eliminating the duty to retreat and giving room for the application of lethal force in circumstances in which an individual may perceive a threat of harm. The policy applies to the public as well as law enforcement officers in varying capacities. ‘Stand your ground’ legislations have so far been introduced in twenty-three states in the united states and more are expected to follow. However, concerns have been raised that these laws worsen aggressive encounters that increase crime rates.

 The effects of ‘stand your ground’ policies have also been linked to an increase in homicides and hospitalizations in states that have implemented it. While Humphreys, Gasparrini, and Wiebe (2017) focus on homicides, McClellan and Tekin (2017) expand the scope of their study to include possible injuries. McClellan and Tekin (2017) revealed that these legislations lead to a significant increase in homicide rates across different parts of the country. Based on the estimates developed, McClellan and Tekin (2017) indicate that at least 30 people are murdered every month as a consequence of the introduction of ‘stand your ground’ rules. Moreover, these laws have been strongly associated with a significant rise in cases of hospitalizations related to firearm-inflicted injuries. As such, serious skepticism has been raised against the view that ‘stand your ground’ laws make the public securer. 

            Critics of ‘stand your ground’ rules often support their justifications by mentioning the adverse effects of gun rights. According to McClellan and Tekin (2017), the public discourses about gun rights and gun control legislation often resurface in the United States whenever high profile shooting tragedies take place. These incidents have increased significantly in the recent past across the United States. The major concern is the shooring incidesnt perpetrated in elementary schools. In addition, young individuals have been killed, for example, Trayvon Martin, a teenager aged 17 years, who was shot by a community watch coordinator for a gated society in Florida. McClellan and Tekin (2017) remark that the sequence of events that prompted the shooting incident generated concerns over the relevance of ‘stand your ground’ laws in protecting citizens. In fact, the public health and safety problems associated with the implementation of these laws have raised major concerns.

            Many researchers use homicide rates as the basis of discrediting ‘stand your ground’ laws. To the contrary, Cheng and Hoekstra (2012) take a different approach by assessing the effects of these legislations on other forms of crime such as burglary robbery, as well as aggravated assault. Cheng and Hoekstra (2012) employed a difference-in-differences design by using state-level statistics and variations in law adoptions to determine the impacts self-defense laws. Their study found no proof of reduction in cases of burglary, robbery, and aggravated assault after the introduction of these laws. Instead, the scholars observed that homicides had increased by approximately 8%, and were extensively categorized as police murders. Moreover, they encourage individuals from all quarters to take actions whenever they feel they are in danger. Cheng and Hoekstra (2012) also sought to determine if boosting self-defense laws reduce crime. They found that there was no significant relationship between crime reduction in these three categories and self-defense laws introduced.

People often anticipate crimes to reduce after the introduction of the castle doctrine. However, they make the criminals bolder such that they are willing to react to the utilization of lethal force to safeguard themselves. Such incidents are likely to cause serious injuries and many deaths if they occurred. However, Cheng and Hoekstra (2012) established that there is minimal evidence of deterrence in robbery, burglary, and aggravated assault. They suggest that there is minimal evidence that such rules offer positive spillovers by deterring general forms of crime. In fact, more studies would have to be carried out to determine the relationship between the stand your ground rules and crime reduction.

Proponents of ‘stand your ground’ laws often argue that self-defense legislations have significantly reduced residential burglaries. Moreover, most criminals would be cautious considering the possibilities that many people may be armed, especially when they are in their residencies. Similarly, Chamlin and Krajewski (2016) assert that ‘stand your ground’ rules have boosted home safety. Considering the pervasiveness of the castle doctrine law, Chamlin and Krajewski (2016) sought to explore whether these laws have attained their objective of minimizing the levels of crime across different jurisdictions. They examined the effects of Oklahoma Stand Your Ground Law on the cases of residential and non-residential burglaries using interrupted time series modeling strategies. The study indicated that the law attained its overall goal of improving residential security and reduction of home-related burglaries. However, they cautioned that such laws had the unprecedented impact of increasing cases of burglaries and crimes committed outside people’s areas of residence. Moreover, many people are vulnerable when they are in public places. Criminals can take advantage of such loopholes to execute their crime.

Self-defense laws have generated intended and unintended consequences in communities. According to Chamlin and Krajewski (2016), the ‘stand your ground’ law explains this phenomenon using the Merton model to discourage criminal activities. They include inadequate awareness of the causal processes that influence the desired outcome of social action, the human errors in the execution of a specific social action, as well as lack of capacity to expect the execution of a specific social action. For instance, Chamlin and Krajewski (2016) mention that the ARIMA  analyses indicate that ‘stand your ground’ laws resulted in small, but a temporary decline in the total number of cases of residential burglaries, and a small, but a lasting reduction in the cases of attempted residential burglaries. 

Finally, few studies have investigated the effects of stand your ground policies on race-related crimes and injustices. For instance, Murphy (2018) states that stand your ground laws were designed to promote self defense, but they have reinforced white supremacy in public spheres and male supremacy in residential places. Murphy uses a statistical assessment process of racial and gender biases on the enforcements of stand your ground rules to deter other commonly mentioned cases. Stand your ground cases in Florida from 2006 to 2013 revealed that the likelihood of convictions for white defendants against white victims in ordinary cases is often fairly high at approximately 90 percent (Murphy, 2018). On the other hand, the likelihood of convictions of black defendants against white victims borders 100 percent. Further, the researcher found that the likelihood of convictions for female defendants in ordinary domestic cases is about 40 percent. For female defendants in the same situations, the convictions often approach 80 percent. In light of these patterns, the researcher infers that stand your ground policies are major contributors of the legal institutionalization of racism and sexism in the United States. Therefore, crimes associated with racial biases after the introduction of stand your ground laws have also provided grounds for critics to discredit the policy.

References

Chamlin, M. B., & Krajewski, A. E. (2016). Use of force and home safety: An impact

assessment of Oklahoma’s Stand Your Ground Law. Deviant Behavior37(3), 237-245.

Cheng, C., & Hoekstra, M. (2012). Does strengthening self-defense law deter crime or escalate

violence? Evidence from Castle Doctrine (No. w18134). Working Paper, National

Bureau of Economic Research.

Humphreys, D. K., Gasparrini, A., & Wiebe, D. J. (2017). Evaluating the impact of Florida’s

“stand your ground” self-defense law on homicide and suicide by firearm: an interrupted

time series study. JAMA internal medicine177(1), 44-50.

McClellan, C., & Tekin, E. (2017). Stand your ground laws, homicides, and injuries. Journal of

human resources52(3), 621-653.

Murphy, J. (2018). Are “Stand Your Ground” Laws Racist and Sexist? A statistical analysis of

cases in Florida, 2005–2013*. Social Science Quarterly (Wiley-Blackwell), 99(1), 439–

452. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssqu.12402

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tired of Guidelines or Lack Time to Work on Your Paper, Get Original Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Thecustomwriting.com research paper writing service has saved thousands of students from stressful college life. Writing a custom research paper may be challenging, considering it has to be plagiarism-free. And it is better not to do your project than to hand in plagiarized work or hurriedly complete it if you do not have time.

Academic integrity is so vital that you may get a suspension or an expulsion because of a copy-pasted work. Writing a custom research paper requires research and writing skills to produce original content. Here are essential things to know about getting the best and legit assignments help websites.

Perfection is vital

Every website will promise you that they produce high-quality work. However, you put your money for your end-of-semester paper only to get a pass. You must learn how to identify the best writing service before committing.

Thecustomwriting.com produces quality content at all times. Rather than a quality promise, quality assurance is what you should consider before hiring a research writer. Best writing services are reliable. You don't want to partner with a cheap research paper writing service that will deliver poorly written essays hours after the due date.

Quality writers are part of the best writing service. A company that has untrained writers will fail you. Before committing, ensure that the people who will write your paper are academicians and professionals. It would help if you had a writer who will be prompt to respond to your questions and follow instructions. Writers who do not fear to ask for clarification where they don't understand are the best for you.

Beware of Scammers Posing to Provide Custom Research Paper Writing Service

It may take time and effort to find a legit custom research paper writing service. Most of the websites claiming to offer writing service trades your paper with another student. For example, if you order your paper today to submit it next week, you may find that another student has already handed over the same document.

Your money is gone, you have no paper to submit, and the deadline is in two hours. You can only sit and cook up some stories for your lecturer. Otherwise, wait for a penalty or suspension.

Others will give you half-baked papers in the name of cheap essays. Apart from reselling your paper, some companies will offer you copy-pasted work. If you don't have tools such as Turnitin or Copyscape to check plagiarism, you may find yourself in the dean's office explaining why you copied your work from the internet word-to-word.

We offer one of the best research paper writing services in the USA and the U.K.

You won’t regret choosing Thecustomwriting.com to handle your research. Your project is an essential part of your academic work. It determines whether you will move on to the next semester or if your name will appear on the graduation list. Do not gamble your education by hiring any cheap essay writing website you find on the internet. Look for a custom research paper writing service reviews before commit.

Avoid scandals by hiring Thecustomwriting.com. Count yourself lucky if you are reading this article. You are in the right direction in finding the writing service for your paper. Though many websites could have frustrated you, Thecustomwriting.com is committed to providing you with reliable service for your paper.

Thecustomwriting.com offers quality services at affordable prices, and they deliver your work on time. They have native English writers that write your paper using the correct language.

Plagiarism Free Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Our writers understand the seriousness of writing plagiarized papers. Every institution has regulations that govern how a research project is conducted. Universities and colleges take plagiarism as gross misconduct. The best writing services are those that will deliver plagiarism-free papers.

Plagiarism involves, among others, copying a published work and delivering it to your lecturer as your own without acknowledging the sources.

Another way your work can be plagiarized is the failure to include the source of your content in a research paper. If you are using someone's thought, you need to include a reference and in-text citations to show that you are using another scholars' worker.

It's a gross mistake to write a five-page paper without a single source unless the paper's nature does not require you to rely on any sources. Here are some tips our writers use to avoid accidental plagiarism:

  • Cite direct quotes, statistics, and paraphrased content.
  • Ensure that all in-text citations are included in the biography and vice versa.
  • Directly quoting not more than 2% of the paper, if quoting is necessary (some papers are exempted from this rule, especially literature).
  • Stick to high authority, scholarly sources. Our writers will hardly paraphrase content from third party blogs and other questionable sites.
  • Consider Buying A Custom Research Paper from Thecustomwriting.Com

    Consider hiring an expert essay writer if you are not sure about your capabilities. Referencing and citations can be challenging, especially if you try to do it for the first time. It's even harder when your lecturer asks you to use a hard referencing style. For example, Harvard requires you to include page numbers, dates, and the author's name in the text. If you have several papers with a strict deadline, you should consider hiring a custom research paper writing service to help you work on your essays.

    However, ensure the website you want to hire offers legit writing service. A good website should at least charge for its services. You will find many websites willing to provide you with free services. No one is that idle to sit and write a paper for free. Sites that provide free or cheap services hooks you when you least expect.

    Also, consider the price of writing a paper. Though cheap essays are of low quality, other sites may have inflated prices for their rate, making you needlessly break your bank.

    Thecustomwriting.com understands the need for a fair and reasonable price for most students. We know that most students need service, but they do not have enough resources. We, therefore, offer quality service that you can afford.

    Benefits of using custom research paper writing service

    If this is your first time considering using a custom writing service, the first thing is to know why taking such an action is the best. Choosing Thecustomwriting.com ensures professional writers handle your paper. Letting a qualified person handle your project can boost your grade. You cannot afford to fail in the upcoming end-of-semester project. In any case, your progress to the next level will be determined by how well you perform in your essay.

    Thecustomwriting.com ensures the timely delivery of your work. The good thing about legit essay writers is that they can write your essay within the shortest time possible, with one page taking up to one hour at most. It doesn't matter what time you want your work done: Thecustomwriting.com is always ready for a task.

    We will give you a paper written explicitly for you. We will ensure that your paper is not delivered to someone else.

    Come to think of this; if five of your classmates decide to order an essay for the same class, five writers will be assigned to work on different papers instead of paraphrasing one paper and sending it to five of you.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Do subject specialist writers handle my research paper?

    It's our responsibility to ensure that someone from your field handles your paper. Our company has enough writers from every discipline. We provide only a research writer qualified in your subject to handle your paper. After placing an order, the first step is to screen the question and requirement and match it with the best writer. The less qualified writer has a college diploma, and they only handle high school papers. All other writers are bachelor, masters, and PhD degree holders.

    Are your researchers qualified enough to know the core of the research?

    We commit to quality content. We understand that failure to deliver quality service will result in the loss of clients. Therefore, we only hire qualified writers who have an in-depth understanding of your paper. Whether you want quantitative research done using Chi-square or qualitative research, Thecustomwriting.com’s writers will comfortably handle any discipline or type of paper. Besides, we offer research paper service from college to PhD. Therefore, we cannot afford to have unqualified writers. Our researchers take every instruction keenly when writing your essay.

    Should I worry about order placement?

    There is nothing to worry about placing your order. Our platform has a simple, user-friendly interface that enables you to navigate to different functionalities with ease. We offer quality custom research paper writing services; thus, you don't have to worry about getting value for your money. Besides, you can track your order's progress. Our system progressively send you email notifications regarding every stage of your orders' progress; thus, you don't even have to log in to track down your order. You will also see the progress on the dashboard when you log in. Moreover, our support team will contact you when the writer needs any clarification.

    Can I have direct communication with the writer after the order placement?

    Our system is designed in such a way that it allows you to communicate with your writer directly. We understand the need to clarify things yourself to the writer. Furthermore, our support team is available 24 hours to ensure that urgent matters are communicated swiftly with the writer.

    Will I get any discount on recommendation?

    The answer is yes. We value your efforts and trust to recommend us to your friends. We will offer you a discount on your next order if a client mentions your email when placing an order.

    What guarantees should customers look for?

    We have a written list of what we guarantee our clients in our terms. We guarantee the quality, confidentiality, free revision, original content, and timely delivery. We also guarantee money-back if, in the unlikely event, you are not happy with the quality of the paper.

    What makes a reliable writing company?

    It's easy to know a reputable company. First, they are transparent about their services. They offer multiple methods of communication and have qualified writers. Most importantly, they deliver your work on time, deliver original content, and honour what they have guaranteed.

    Why should customers not opt for cheap essay writing services?

    Cheap essay services will only waste your time. They have foreign writers who will produce plagiarized content full of grammar errors. You will waste your precious time waiting for a paper that you can't give your lecturer.

    Is buying essays online safe?

    It's safe to buy your essay if you take the right precaution. Before putting your money on a strange site, explore the website to see whether you will get customer reviews. They will help you make the right decision.

    How do I hire someone to write an essay for me?

    These are common questions with most clients. It's effortless to get a professional writer. The first step is to identify a custom research paper writing service that is legit and sign up. After that, they will guide you on how to place your order and get a writer. Some companies will allow you to choose a writer for yourself or choose a writer for you.

    What types of writing services can I order online?

    Our website offers a variety of legit essay services. We provide any academic assistance, including research projects, assignments, and admission letters. Visit our website to see what each service entails.

    What benefits and additional features do Thecustomwriting.com services offer?

    We offer several free services to our customers. We offer free revision, a discount on your first order, and free pages such as references and cover pages. Also, we have a quality control department that ensures that all papers are of high quality before delivering them to you.

    Do websites maintain your privacy? Are orders secured?

    Your privacy is our top priority. You will be recognized by your I.D. assigned to you after signup instead of your name. The only person who can access your account is you or anyone else you give your password. Your payment is through a third party. Therefore, your personal information will never reach our site without your consent.

    What are the pros of ordering from custom writing services?

    You get quality papers. We have writers with decades of experience delivering quality papers worth the client's money and much more. We understand your power to influence our progress. Your paper will be delivered on time and written by professional writers.

    Hire a professional writer

    Now that you know what to look for when considering the custom research paper writing services, it's time to try us. Sign up and get a discount on your first order. You don't have to worry about quality, timely delivery, and price. We know they are essential to you. Use promo code ‘2021’ and claim a 15% discount on your first order.

    Calculator

    Calculate the price of your paper

    Total price:$26

    Need a better grade?
    We've got you covered.

    Order your paper