fbpx

Words Essay Assignment

Words Essay Assignment

Words Essay Assignment

Introduction

Examining the case study on the 2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests helps unpack the various ways in which big data affects democratic processes. The protests comprised a series of demonstrations held in Hong Kong against the new Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance legislation. The Bill had been articulated in response to a murderer who had fled to Hong Kong from Taiwan but could not be extradited due to the lack of repatriation agreements between the two jurisdictions. Opponents of the Bill fear that it would place Hong Kong visitors and residents under the control of the Communist Party of China. From a political perspective, narrowcasting and micro-targeting would not have been possible without big data. As such, big data has had a significant impact on the democratic development of Hong Kong. However, big data’s increasing intervention in the democratic process raises several ethical concerns that undermine racial identity and equality, for instance, the loss of privacy and a possible threat to democracy. Therefore, it is important to examine the relationship between digital media and democracy using the Hong Kong case study.

The impact of Big Data on Democracy

The social media internet culture shapes most of the democratic processes taking place across the world. The emerging role of big data is evidenced by the political campaigns held in Hong Kong. The protests against the extradition bill are among the most defining moments for China’s democracy as they reveal the future of political protests. The demonstrations held in Hong Kong leveraged some of the latest techniques of online advertising and marketing. Online activism was the primary avenue used by protesters to gain traction for demonstrations and brainstorm ideas (Rød and Weidmann, 2015, p. 338). Online advertising targeted people based on their detailed profiles. For example, young people would get links showing them when and where protests would be or how to conduct vigils while conservative anti-extradition bill memes targeted the elderly to ensure they understood the anti-extradition rationale. As such, the internet culture plays a central role in shaping democratic processes today.

Micro-targeting and narrowcasting were common throughout the protests. The protesters also leveraged encrypted messages sent through the Telegram app to communicate. The approach was effective because they could easily create messages using automated technologies that appealed to specific individuals without the risk of being tracked by the Hong Kong Police Force and the Chinese government. However, the concept of capturing and storing users’ data and their behaviours to send personalized messages raises major ethical issues that undermine the principles of democratic process (Gerschewski and Dukalskis, 2018, p. 12). Firstly, a lack of privacy can harm users, especially when they are unable to stop others from accessing their data. For example, some protesters had created a website that disclosed personal data of police officers deployed to control the crowds, which forced the authorities to reassign them due to safety concerns. Secondly, the worst possible outcome attributed to the ethical misuse of big data involves the loss of democracy (Floridi and Taddeo, 2016, p. 156 and Crawford, Gray, and Miltner, 2014, p.10). Hong Kong and China are examples of data-controlled societies. Although data collection programs have been initiated in both regions to protect citizens from terrorism, it is now widely used to influence policies and markets. For example, China uses its big data to construct a citizen score to determine eligibility for employment, travel visas, and loans. Consequently, the encrypted messages sent through Telegram apps demonstrate that microtargeting and narrowcasting were effective throughout the protests.

Data mining in Hong Kong is not as rampant as it is in Mainland China. However, the recent leak of surveillance programs during the Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests suggests that the region’s technological capabilities have grown. While the data is harmless, the manner in which people harness it raises ethical concerns. Gerbaudo (2018, p. 745) notes that the ever-growing scope of big data presents novel challenges which the current approaches to privacy self-management cannot adequately deal with. Therefore, failure to address the emerging ethical issues can undermine democratic processes depending on the independence and impartiality of people and systems.

Unlike digital marketing, traditional advertising methods are more likely to be more expensive. As such, it was more effective for the protesters in Hong Kong to utilize online platforms rather than traditional media. Freedman (2018, p. 604) adds that traditional advertising methods have little prospects of interaction with marketing materials. Finally, it is more difficult to measure the effects of a traditional advertising campaign. On the contrary, marketers can track the success of the campaign while using digital methods. The success of big data is contingent on the same digital platforms used to reinforce online marketing (Mittelstadt and Floridi, 2016, p. 303; O’Leary, 2016, p. 189). Compared to traditional advertising, digital marketing methods deliver the message across a wider audience and are more affordable.

The Internet and Identity development

One of the prevailing theoretical perspective held is that the internet provides a platform for identity construction and community formation around racial and ethnic identity. Hong Kong enjoys the reputation of being a global city despite being predominantly Chinese. The multi-cultural environment raises key issues regarding racial and ethnic identity, especially among the 300,000 ethnic minorities that include Africans, Indians, Nepalese, Filipinos, and Mexicans among others. The racial and ethnic tensions have reduced significantly in the region as people unite against the government. However, such unity would not have been possible without the Internet. Therefore, cyber space plays a central role in providing a platform for identity construction and community formation around racial and ethnic identity.

Racial and ethnic social constructs evolves in one context while changing in another. The Internet has grown to be the primary carrier of these identities across the world. However, digital systems are already challenging the existing political and social structures, a trend expected to continue into the future. Theoretical studies in digital technologies and ethnic identities help in developing an in-depth understanding of the relationship between the two and the possible impacts they have on each other. Daniels (2013, p. 695) argues that ethnic identities are a form of self-organization for cultural groups as evidenced by the immigrants in Hong Kong. Their cultural identities provide the organizing principles used to cope with the underlying circumstances of the host country. One of the primary implications for the rise of the Internet is that it has become the primary carrier of these cultural identities across the world. There are three primary categories that highlight the dynamics and persistence of ethnicity in the Internet. They include ethnicity in newsgroups, ethnicity and the World Wide Web, and ethnicity, resistance, and information technology. Firstly, the discussions held in the newsgroups forums are the simplest forms of ethnicity on the Internet. Unlike other social media platforms, news forums are primarily concerned with political, social, and regional issues across the world. Nearly all the debates relating to experiences that occur outside the cyberspace. The popularity of these forums during the 2019 Hong Kong anti-extradition bill protests suggests that more people now view the internet as a platform for identity construction. The trend springs from the opportunity to send and receive unsecured messages in a virtual marketplace. While most of the debates are redundant and discordant, the high level of participation highlights the significance of the issues disused by the people involved. Therefore, the discussions conducted on online newsgroups provide the platform necessary to reinforce users’ ethnicity and identities over the Internet.

Information passed over the internet is often presented as it is rather than discussed. Moreover, the relationship between racial and ethnic identities is contingent on how information is consumed in the World Wide Web. As such, new ways of self-representation and marketing emerge without the restrictions imposed by regulations and laws. Consequently, identities are reshaped as users seek novel ways of achieving self-determination. The primary consequences for relying on the internet for identity construction and community formation include the distortion and manipulation of information. For example, during the protests, the home page for the Hong Kong government gave the impression that the metropolis was for a family vacation and making business arrangements but ignored the civil unrest accompanied by extrajudicial killings. The homepage also fails to provide any information about the various groups living in the city. Instead, it provides numerous links to Asian-oriented servers that mirror the situation of power and in Hong Kong. Therefore, people are more likely to consume online information without conducting the due diligence necessary to ascertain whether it is factual or artifice.

Relying on only one home page for a group becomes necessary because it ensures elites do not manipulate racial and ethnic representations in the digital space for personal gains. The privileged techno-elites have the capacity to construct and shape identities of different ethnic groups over the internet since online representations are based on concealed agendas such as raising funds or seeking international support for political agendas. Consequently, the chances of self-determination are relatively skewed due to the global distribution of the internet as well as the people who use it. As such, immigrants in Hong Kong usually depict themselves and their country of origin differently compared to the people that have lived in these countries, particularly second and third-generation immigrants living in the city. Therefore, working with information over the Internet becomes more difficult since the intention of the author is never clear. Under these conditions, having more than one home page for a group becomes necessary because it ensures elites do not manipulate racial and ethnic representations in the digital space for personal gains. Individuals and groups are likely to face persecution, discrimination, or restrictions of self-determination due to their ethnic identity. As such, racial and ethnic identities are often used as the primary organizing principles in online conflicts. Lenette (2016, p. 123) adds that ethnicity provides the basis for preventing members from gaining access to new technologies, especially when the exclusions concentrate on minority groups within society. For example, in Hong Kong, the African minority groups find it harder to access technology-related jobs due to racial profiling. As such, a racial embodiment may be understood in the context of the internet’s visual culture. Despite the Internet being the primary agent for globalization, it provides a platform for racial stereotypes to thrive, especially against minority groups. Most of these stereotypes are meant to advance an individuals’ or a groups’ political agendas by falsely representing them in digital platforms.

Conclusion

The prevailing theoretical perspective is that cyberspace creates an opportunity for people to develop their identities. As such, it plays an essential role in constructing communities around racial and ethnic identities. Despite Hong Kong being an international city, its multi-cultural setting raises key issues regarding racial and ethnic identity that undermine the ethnic minorities. However, these tensions have reduced significantly as people unite against the government during the protests. The analysis conducted on the series of demonstrations held in Hong Kong against the new Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance legislation suggests that big data supported the narrowcasting and micro-targeting strategies employed throughout the protests. The primary argument advanced supports the claims about the internet being a platform for identity construction and community formation around racial and ethnic identity. The cyberspace also provides technology elites with an opportunity of racial embodiment. As such, the visual culture of the Internet not only complicates how race is represented but also reinforces stereotypes, especially those with a political agenda.

References

Crawford, K., Gray, M.L. and Miltner, K., 2014. Big Data| critiquing Big Data: Politics, ethics, epistemology| special section introduction. International Journal of Communication8, p.10.

Daniels, J., 2013. Race and racism in Internet studies: A review and critique. New Media & Society15(5), pp.695-719.

Floridi, L. and Taddeo, M., 2016. What is data ethics? Retrieved from https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rsta.2016.0360

Freedman, D., 2018. Populism and media policy failure. European Journal of Communication33(6), pp.604-618.

Gerbaudo, P., 2018. Social media and populism: an elective affinity?. Media, Culture & Society40(5), pp.745-753.

Gerschewski, J. and Dukalskis, A., 2018. How the internet can reinforce authoritarian regimes: The case of North Korea. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs19, pp.12-19.

Lenette, C., 2016, March. Writing with light: An iconographic-iconologic approach to refugee photography. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research (Vol. 17, No. 2).

Mittelstadt, B.D. and Floridi, L., 2016. The ethics of big data: current and foreseeable issues in biomedical contexts. Science and engineering ethics22(2), pp.303-341.

O’Leary, D.E., 2016. Ethics for big data and analytics. IEEE Intelligent Systems31(4), pp.81-84.

Rød, E.G. and Weidmann, N.B., 2015. Empowering activists or autocrats? The Internet in authoritarian regimes. Journal of Peace Research52(3), pp.338-351.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Tired of Guidelines or Lack Time to Work on Your Paper, Get Original Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Thecustomwriting.com research paper writing service has saved thousands of students from stressful college life. Writing a custom research paper may be challenging, considering it has to be plagiarism-free. And it is better not to do your project than to hand in plagiarized work or hurriedly complete it if you do not have time.

Academic integrity is so vital that you may get a suspension or an expulsion because of a copy-pasted work. Writing a custom research paper requires research and writing skills to produce original content. Here are essential things to know about getting the best and legit assignments help websites.

Perfection is vital

Every website will promise you that they produce high-quality work. However, you put your money for your end-of-semester paper only to get a pass. You must learn how to identify the best writing service before committing.

Thecustomwriting.com produces quality content at all times. Rather than a quality promise, quality assurance is what you should consider before hiring a research writer. Best writing services are reliable. You don't want to partner with a cheap research paper writing service that will deliver poorly written essays hours after the due date.

Quality writers are part of the best writing service. A company that has untrained writers will fail you. Before committing, ensure that the people who will write your paper are academicians and professionals. It would help if you had a writer who will be prompt to respond to your questions and follow instructions. Writers who do not fear to ask for clarification where they don't understand are the best for you.

Beware of Scammers Posing to Provide Custom Research Paper Writing Service

It may take time and effort to find a legit custom research paper writing service. Most of the websites claiming to offer writing service trades your paper with another student. For example, if you order your paper today to submit it next week, you may find that another student has already handed over the same document.

Your money is gone, you have no paper to submit, and the deadline is in two hours. You can only sit and cook up some stories for your lecturer. Otherwise, wait for a penalty or suspension.

Others will give you half-baked papers in the name of cheap essays. Apart from reselling your paper, some companies will offer you copy-pasted work. If you don't have tools such as Turnitin or Copyscape to check plagiarism, you may find yourself in the dean's office explaining why you copied your work from the internet word-to-word.

We offer one of the best research paper writing services in the USA and the U.K.

You won’t regret choosing Thecustomwriting.com to handle your research. Your project is an essential part of your academic work. It determines whether you will move on to the next semester or if your name will appear on the graduation list. Do not gamble your education by hiring any cheap essay writing website you find on the internet. Look for a custom research paper writing service reviews before commit.

Avoid scandals by hiring Thecustomwriting.com. Count yourself lucky if you are reading this article. You are in the right direction in finding the writing service for your paper. Though many websites could have frustrated you, Thecustomwriting.com is committed to providing you with reliable service for your paper.

Thecustomwriting.com offers quality services at affordable prices, and they deliver your work on time. They have native English writers that write your paper using the correct language.

Plagiarism Free Custom Research Paper Writing Service

Our writers understand the seriousness of writing plagiarized papers. Every institution has regulations that govern how a research project is conducted. Universities and colleges take plagiarism as gross misconduct. The best writing services are those that will deliver plagiarism-free papers.

Plagiarism involves, among others, copying a published work and delivering it to your lecturer as your own without acknowledging the sources.

Another way your work can be plagiarized is the failure to include the source of your content in a research paper. If you are using someone's thought, you need to include a reference and in-text citations to show that you are using another scholars' worker.

It's a gross mistake to write a five-page paper without a single source unless the paper's nature does not require you to rely on any sources. Here are some tips our writers use to avoid accidental plagiarism:

  • Cite direct quotes, statistics, and paraphrased content.
  • Ensure that all in-text citations are included in the biography and vice versa.
  • Directly quoting not more than 2% of the paper, if quoting is necessary (some papers are exempted from this rule, especially literature).
  • Stick to high authority, scholarly sources. Our writers will hardly paraphrase content from third party blogs and other questionable sites.
  • Consider Buying A Custom Research Paper from Thecustomwriting.Com

    Consider hiring an expert essay writer if you are not sure about your capabilities. Referencing and citations can be challenging, especially if you try to do it for the first time. It's even harder when your lecturer asks you to use a hard referencing style. For example, Harvard requires you to include page numbers, dates, and the author's name in the text. If you have several papers with a strict deadline, you should consider hiring a custom research paper writing service to help you work on your essays.

    However, ensure the website you want to hire offers legit writing service. A good website should at least charge for its services. You will find many websites willing to provide you with free services. No one is that idle to sit and write a paper for free. Sites that provide free or cheap services hooks you when you least expect.

    Also, consider the price of writing a paper. Though cheap essays are of low quality, other sites may have inflated prices for their rate, making you needlessly break your bank.

    Thecustomwriting.com understands the need for a fair and reasonable price for most students. We know that most students need service, but they do not have enough resources. We, therefore, offer quality service that you can afford.

    Benefits of using custom research paper writing service

    If this is your first time considering using a custom writing service, the first thing is to know why taking such an action is the best. Choosing Thecustomwriting.com ensures professional writers handle your paper. Letting a qualified person handle your project can boost your grade. You cannot afford to fail in the upcoming end-of-semester project. In any case, your progress to the next level will be determined by how well you perform in your essay.

    Thecustomwriting.com ensures the timely delivery of your work. The good thing about legit essay writers is that they can write your essay within the shortest time possible, with one page taking up to one hour at most. It doesn't matter what time you want your work done: Thecustomwriting.com is always ready for a task.

    We will give you a paper written explicitly for you. We will ensure that your paper is not delivered to someone else.

    Come to think of this; if five of your classmates decide to order an essay for the same class, five writers will be assigned to work on different papers instead of paraphrasing one paper and sending it to five of you.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    Do subject specialist writers handle my research paper?

    It's our responsibility to ensure that someone from your field handles your paper. Our company has enough writers from every discipline. We provide only a research writer qualified in your subject to handle your paper. After placing an order, the first step is to screen the question and requirement and match it with the best writer. The less qualified writer has a college diploma, and they only handle high school papers. All other writers are bachelor, masters, and PhD degree holders.

    Are your researchers qualified enough to know the core of the research?

    We commit to quality content. We understand that failure to deliver quality service will result in the loss of clients. Therefore, we only hire qualified writers who have an in-depth understanding of your paper. Whether you want quantitative research done using Chi-square or qualitative research, Thecustomwriting.com’s writers will comfortably handle any discipline or type of paper. Besides, we offer research paper service from college to PhD. Therefore, we cannot afford to have unqualified writers. Our researchers take every instruction keenly when writing your essay.

    Should I worry about order placement?

    There is nothing to worry about placing your order. Our platform has a simple, user-friendly interface that enables you to navigate to different functionalities with ease. We offer quality custom research paper writing services; thus, you don't have to worry about getting value for your money. Besides, you can track your order's progress. Our system progressively send you email notifications regarding every stage of your orders' progress; thus, you don't even have to log in to track down your order. You will also see the progress on the dashboard when you log in. Moreover, our support team will contact you when the writer needs any clarification.

    Can I have direct communication with the writer after the order placement?

    Our system is designed in such a way that it allows you to communicate with your writer directly. We understand the need to clarify things yourself to the writer. Furthermore, our support team is available 24 hours to ensure that urgent matters are communicated swiftly with the writer.

    Will I get any discount on recommendation?

    The answer is yes. We value your efforts and trust to recommend us to your friends. We will offer you a discount on your next order if a client mentions your email when placing an order.

    What guarantees should customers look for?

    We have a written list of what we guarantee our clients in our terms. We guarantee the quality, confidentiality, free revision, original content, and timely delivery. We also guarantee money-back if, in the unlikely event, you are not happy with the quality of the paper.

    What makes a reliable writing company?

    It's easy to know a reputable company. First, they are transparent about their services. They offer multiple methods of communication and have qualified writers. Most importantly, they deliver your work on time, deliver original content, and honour what they have guaranteed.

    Why should customers not opt for cheap essay writing services?

    Cheap essay services will only waste your time. They have foreign writers who will produce plagiarized content full of grammar errors. You will waste your precious time waiting for a paper that you can't give your lecturer.

    Is buying essays online safe?

    It's safe to buy your essay if you take the right precaution. Before putting your money on a strange site, explore the website to see whether you will get customer reviews. They will help you make the right decision.

    How do I hire someone to write an essay for me?

    These are common questions with most clients. It's effortless to get a professional writer. The first step is to identify a custom research paper writing service that is legit and sign up. After that, they will guide you on how to place your order and get a writer. Some companies will allow you to choose a writer for yourself or choose a writer for you.

    What types of writing services can I order online?

    Our website offers a variety of legit essay services. We provide any academic assistance, including research projects, assignments, and admission letters. Visit our website to see what each service entails.

    What benefits and additional features do Thecustomwriting.com services offer?

    We offer several free services to our customers. We offer free revision, a discount on your first order, and free pages such as references and cover pages. Also, we have a quality control department that ensures that all papers are of high quality before delivering them to you.

    Do websites maintain your privacy? Are orders secured?

    Your privacy is our top priority. You will be recognized by your I.D. assigned to you after signup instead of your name. The only person who can access your account is you or anyone else you give your password. Your payment is through a third party. Therefore, your personal information will never reach our site without your consent.

    What are the pros of ordering from custom writing services?

    You get quality papers. We have writers with decades of experience delivering quality papers worth the client's money and much more. We understand your power to influence our progress. Your paper will be delivered on time and written by professional writers.

    Hire a professional writer

    Now that you know what to look for when considering the custom research paper writing services, it's time to try us. Sign up and get a discount on your first order. You don't have to worry about quality, timely delivery, and price. We know they are essential to you. Use promo code ‘2021’ and claim a 15% discount on your first order.

    Calculator

    Calculate the price of your paper

    Total price:$26

    Need a better grade?
    We've got you covered.

    Order your paper